Recognition of an infected endoluminal aortic prosthesis following repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm: case report and review of the literature.
ABSTRACT Presentation of an infected endoaortic stent graft may be different from those with open aortic reconstruction and may be difficult to recognize. We report a case of an infected endoaortic stent graft for treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In this case, clinically significant endograft infection was not apparent on the initial computed tomography (CT) scan, however, serial CT scans demonstrated progressive AAA enlargement with increased inflammation. The white blood cell scan documented enhancement throughout the infrarenal aorta. The patient's condition was managed with total explantation of the endograft, AAA resection, and reconstruction with a cryopreserved aortic homograft. This report reviews the presentation, radiographic findings, and diagnosis of as well as literature on infected endoaortic stent grafts.
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ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the influence of patient characteristics and treatment options on survival and limb loss after treatment of prosthetic aortic graft infection. Fifty-three patients treated for prosthetic aortic graft infection were reviewed. Twenty-three presented with groin infection, 12 with sepsis, 10 with aortoenteric fistula, 4 with limb ischemia, and 4 with pseudoaneurysm. Treatment included staged extraanatomic bypass (EAB) plus graft excision in 23 patients, simultaneous EAB and graft excision in 18, in situ graft replacement in 5, and local therapy only in 7. Axillofemoral bypass was done for revascularization in 53 limbs and axillopopliteal bypass in 16 limbs. The results of this study showed that morbidity and mortality of prosthetic aortic graft infection is influenced by the presentation and type of treatment of the infected graft. Staged axillofemoral bypass (when possible) plus graft excision appears to be associated with acceptable outcome (survival with limb salvage in 74%).Annals of Vascular Surgery 08/1999; 13(4):413-20. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To analyze the late complications after endovascular graft repair of elective abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) at the authors' institution since November 1992. Recently, the use of endovascular grafts for the treatment of AAAs has increased dramatically. However, there is little midterm or long-term proof of their efficacy. During the past 9 years, 239 endovascular graft repairs were performed for nonruptured AAAs, many (86%) in high-risk patients or in those with complex anatomy. The grafts used were Montefiore (n = 97), Ancure/EVT (n = 14), Vanguard (n = 16), Talent (n = 47), Excluder (n = 20), AneuRx (n = 29), and Zenith (n = 16). All but the AneuRx and Ancure repairs were performed as part of a U.S. phase 1 or phase 2 clinical trial under a Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption. Procedural outcomes and follow-up results were prospectively recorded. The major complication and death rates within 30 days of endovascular graft repair were 17.6% and 8.5%, respectively. The technical success rate with complete AAA exclusion was 88.7%. During follow-up to 75 months (mean +/- standard deviation, 15.7 +/- 6.3 months), 53 patients (22%) died of unrelated causes. Two AAAs treated with endovascular grafts ruptured and were surgically repaired, with one death. Other late complications included type 1 endoleak (n = 7), aortoduodenal fistula (n = 2), graft thrombosis/stenosis (n = 7), limb separation or fabric tear with a subsequent type 3 endoleak (n = 1), and a persistent type 2 endoleak (n = 13). Secondary intervention or surgery was required in 23 patients (10%). These included deployment of a second graft (n = 4), open AAA repair (n = 5), coil embolization (n = 6), extraanatomic bypass (n = 4), and stent placement (n = 3). With longer follow-up, complications occurred with increasing frequency. Although most could be managed with some form of endovascular reintervention, some complications resulted in a high death rate. Although endovascular graft repair is less invasive and sometimes effective in the long term, it is often not a definitive procedure. These findings mandate long-term surveillance and prospective studies to prove the effectiveness of endovascular graft repair.Annals of Surgery 10/2001; 234(3):323-34; discussion 334-5. · 6.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate of the impact of endovascular aneurysm repair on the rate of open surgical repair and on the overall treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). All patients with AAA who were treated during two consecutive 40-month periods were reviewed. During the first period, only open surgical repair was performed; during the subsequent 40 months, endovascular repair and open surgical repair were treatment options. A total of 727 patients with AAA were treated during the entire period. During the initial 40 months, 268 patients were treated with open surgical repair, including 216 infrarenal (81%), 43 complex (16%), and 9 ruptured (3%) aortic aneurysms. During the subsequent 40 months, 459 patients with AAA were treated (71% increase). There was no significant change in the number of patients undergoing open surgical repair and no significant difference in the rate of infrarenal (238 [77%]) and complex (51 [16%]) repairs. A total of 353 patients were referred for endovascular repair. Of these, 190 (54%) were considered candidates for endovascular repair based on computed tomography or arteriographic morphologic criteria. Analyzing a subgroup of 123 patients, the most common primary reasons for ineligibility for endovascular repair were related to morphology of the neck in 80 patients (65%) and of the iliac arteries in 35 patients (28%). A total of 149 patients underwent endovascular repair. Of these, the procedure was successful in 147 (99%), and 2 (1%) patients underwent surgical conversion. The hospital death rate was 0%, and the 30-day death rate was 1%. During a follow-up period of 1 to 39 months (mean 12 +/- 9), 21 secondary procedures to treat endoleak (20) or to maintain graft limb patency (1) were performed in 17 patients (11%). There were no aneurysm ruptures or aneurysm-related deaths. Endovascular repair appears to have augmented treatment options rather than replaced open surgical repair for patients with AAA. Patients who previously were not candidates for repair because of medical comorbidity may now be safely treated with endovascular repair.Annals of Surgery 11/2000; 232(4):501-7. · 6.33 Impact Factor