Observer variability of iliac artery measurements in endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.
ABSTRACT Accurate measurement of iliac arteries is essential for successful delivery of aortic endografts without iliac limb endoleak. Although intravascular ultrasound measurements may be reliable, they require an invasive procedure. Therefore, helical computed tomography (hCT) has become the most commonly used modality for obtaining preprocedure arterial diameter measurements. The accuracy of hCT remains ill-defined, however, because an anatomic gold standard with which to compare the measurements is not available. We therefore assessed inter- and intraobserver variability of hCT measurements. We also applied accepted cutoff measurements to determine the clinical impact of observer variability in predicting the need for adjunctive iliac access and iliac limb seal procedures. hCT scans were analyzed in 30 patients who had undergone successful placement of a bifurcated endograft (26 Ancure, 4 Aneurex). Mean age of patients was 75 years, the male/female ratio was 27:3. Three blinded observers measured transverse diameters (maximal aortic aneurysm [Amax], narrowest infrarenal aortic neck [Amin], maximal common iliac [Imax], and narrowest iliac artery [Imin]). Inter- and intraobserver variability was calculated as standard deviation of mean pair differences according to the method of Bland and Altman. The true incidence of adjunctive procedures to facilitate delivery of the device into the aorta and ensure iliac limb seal was compared with that predicted by the observers to obtain sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the measurements. Interobserver variability of iliac measurements was higher than intraobserver variability (p < 0.05). Interobserver variability of Amax ranged from 4.37 to 10.73% of the mean Amax. Conversely, variability of Amin was 8.91-18.89%, that of Imax was 12.11-22.23%, and that of Imin was 10.51-18.73% (p < 0.05 vs. Amax). Therefore, interobserver variability influenced aortic neck and iliac diameter twice as much as it did aneurysm measurements. To successfully place 30 endografts we performed 8 adjunctive access procedures (4 angioplasties, 4 common iliac artery conduits) and 17 adjunctive procedures in 60 limbs to ensure limb seal (9 unilateral IIA coil embolizations, 8 stents). We used 8.5 (Ancure) and 8.0 (Aneurex) mm as lower limits of acceptability for uncomplicated access, and 13.4 (Ancure) and 16 (Aneurex) mm as the upper limits of acceptability for uncomplicated iliac limb seal. These limits were applied to measurements from the three observers to predict need for adjunctive access or iliac seal procedures in this cohort. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of these observer measurements for a need to perform additional access procedures were 0.67, 0.80, 0.55, and 0.87; the same values for a need to perform additional seal procedures were 0.71, 0.74, 0.52, and 0.86, respectively. Interobserver variability was approximately 20% of measured iliac diameter. This explains why helical CT measurements were noted to have low PPV in predicting the need for an adjunctive access or limb seal procedure. These data establish PPV and NPV for hCT and provide objective evidence for the need to improve iliac artery imaging. Until more accurate imaging becomes available, we recommend oversizing of iliac limbs by 10-20% in patients with wide landing zones and that surgeons be prepared to resolve unexpected iliac artery access or seal problems intraoperatively.
Article: Outcome of common iliac arteries after straight aortic tube-graft placement during elective repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the relative rates of common iliac artery (CIA) expansion after elective straight aortic tube-graft replacement of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Five participating centers in this 2004 study entered patients they had managed by an aortoaortic tube graft for elective AAA repair. The procedures took place between January 1995 and December 2003. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained for all patients in 2004 to assess changes in CIA diameter. Measurements on preoperative and postoperative CT scans were all made at the same level using the same technique. Entered in the study were 147 patients (138 men, 9 women) with a mean age of 68 years. Mean follow-up from aortic surgery to verification of CIA diameter on the postoperative CT scan was 4.8 years. Mean preoperative CIA diameter was 13.6 mm vs 15.2 mm postoperatively. No patient developed occlusive iliac artery disease during follow-up. Three patients (2%) required repeat surgery during follow-up for a CIA aneurysm. The 147 patients were divided into three groups based on preoperative CIA diameter shown in CT scan: group A (n = 59, 40.1%), both CIA were of normal diameter; group B (n = 53, 36.1%), ectasia (diameter between 12 and 18 mm) of at least one CIA; group C (n = 35, 23.8%), an aneurysm (diameter >18 mm) of at least one CIA. CIA diameter increased by a mean of 1 mm (9.4%) over 5.5 years in group A vs 1.7 mm (12.1%) over 4.3 years in group B and 2.3 mm (12.7%) over 4.2 years in group C. The three patients who required repeat surgery for a CIA aneurysm during follow-up were all in group C. Four variables were associated with aneurysmal change in CIA: initial CIA diameter, celiac aorta diameter on the preoperative CT scan, a coexisting aneurysm site, and the follow-up duration. Tube-graft placement during AAA surgery is justified even for moderate CIA dilatation (<18 mm). CIA aneurysms with a preoperative diameter > or =25 mm enlarge more rapidly and warrant insertion of a bifurcated graft during the same surgical session as AAA repair. The evolutive potential of CIA between 18 mm and 25 mm in diameter justifies a bifurcated graft when the celiac aorta diameter is >25 mm or the patient's life expectancy is > or =8 years.Journal of Vascular Surgery 12/2006; 44(5):943-8. · 3.21 Impact Factor