Identification of Pyrococcus furiosus amylopullulanase catalytic residues.
ABSTRACT Pyrococcus furiosus amylopullulanase (PfAPU) belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 57. Using sequence alignments of the known family 57 enzymes and site-directed mutagenesis, E291, D394, and E396 were identified as PfAPU putative catalytic residues. The apparent catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) of PfAPU mutants E291Q and D394N on pullulan were 123.0 and 24.4 times lower, respectively, than that of PfAPU. The activity of mutant E396Q on pullulan was too low to allow reliable determination of its catalytic efficiency. The apparent specific activities of these enzymes on starch also decreased 91.0 times (E291Q), 11.7 times (D394N), and 37.2 times (E396Q). The hydrolytic patterns for pullulan and starch were the same, while the hydrolysis rates differed as reported. Based on sequence alignment and a previous report, E291 is proposed as the catalytic nucleophile.
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ABSTRACT: The glycoside hydrolase family 57 (GH57) contains five well-established enzyme specificities: α-amylase, amylopullulanase, branching enzyme, 4-α-glucanotransferase and α-galactosidase. Around 700 GH57 members originate from Bacteria and Archaea, a substantial number being produced by thermophiles. An intriguing feature of family GH57 is that only slightly more than 2 % of its members (i.e., less than 20 enzymes) have already been biochemically characterized. The main goal of the present bioinformatics study was to retrieve from databases, and analyze in detail, sequences having clear features of the five GH57 enzyme specificities mentioned above. Of the 367 GH57 sequences, 56 were evaluated as α-amylases, 99 as amylopullulanases, 158 as branching enzymes, 46 as 4-α-glucanotransferases and 8 as α-galactosidases. Based on the analysis of collected sequences, sequence logos were created for each specificity and unique sequence features were identified within the logos. These features were proposed to define the so-called sequence fingerprints of GH57 enzyme specificities. Domain arrangements characteristic of the individual enzyme specificities as well as evolutionary relationships within the family GH57 are also discussed. The results of this study could find use in rational protein design of family GH57 amylolytic enzymes and also in the possibility of assigning a GH57 specificity to a hypothetical GH57 member prior to its biochemical characterization.Extremophiles 04/2012; 16(3):497-506. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thermostable amylopullulanase (TAPU) is valuable in starch saccharification industry for its capability to catalyze both α-1,4 and α-1,6 glucosidic bonds under the industrial starch liquefication condition. The majority of TAPUs belong to glycoside hydrolase family 57 (GH57). In this study, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of GH57 amylopullulanase (APU) based on the highly conserved DOMON_glucodextranase_like (DDL) domain and classified APUs according to their multidomain architectures, phylogenetic analysis and enzymatic characters. This study revealed that amylopullulanase, pullulanase, andα-amylase had passed through a long joint evolution process, in which DDL played an important role. The phylogenetic analysis of DDL domain showed that the GH57 APU is directly sharing a common ancestor with pullulanase, and the DDL domains in some species undergo evolution scenarios such as domain duplication and recombination. (© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).Journal of Basic Microbiology 06/2012; · 1.20 Impact Factor