The use of debrided human articular cartilage for autologous chondrocyte implantation: maintenance of chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation in type I collagen gels.
ABSTRACT Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is the most promising surgical treatment for large full thickness knee joint articular cartilage (AC) defects where cells from healthy non-weight bearing area AC are multiplied in vitro and implanted into such defects. In the routine surgical procedure for symptomatic knee full thickness AC defects, damaged AC surrounding the edge and the base of such defects is usually debrided and discarded. The purpose of this study was to examine if chondrocytes from this 'debrided' AC can proliferate, synthesize a cartilage specific matrix and thus can be used for ACI. METHODS: Biopsies were retrieved from 12 patients (debrided articular cartilage: DAC, aged 35-61) and from two autopsies (normal articular cartilage: NAC, aged 21 and 25). Chondrocytes were isolated, seeded at low density in type I collagen gels and as monolayer cultures for 4 weeks without passage. RESULTS: After 4 weeks cultures in type I collagen gels, cell proliferation from DAC (18.34 +/- 1.95 fold) was similar to cells from NAC (11.24 +/- 1.02 fold). Syntheses of proteoglycan and collagen in DAC were also similar to NAC. Newly synthesized matrices in gel cultures consisted predominantly of type II collagen as shown by immuno-labelling and SDS-PAGE followed by fluorography. Chondrocytes from 'debrided human AC' cultured at low density in type I collagen gels may be used for the ACI procedure as they provide sufficient viable cell numbers for ACI and maintain their chondrocyte phenotype as they synthesize a cartilage-like matrix.
Article: Cell Seeding Densities in Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation Techniques for Cartilage Repair[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cartilage repair techniques have been among the most intensively investigated treatments in orthopedics for the past decade, and several different treatment modalities are currently available. Despite the extensive research effort within this field, the generation of hyaline cartilage remains a considerable challenge. There are many parameters attendant to each of the cartilage repair techniques that can affect the amount and types of reparative tissue generated in the cartilage defect, and some of the most fundamental of these parameters have yet to be fully investigated. For procedures in which in vitro–cultured autologous chondrocytes are implanted under a periosteal or synthetic membrane cover, or seeded onto a porous membrane or scaffold, little is known about how the number of cells affects the clinical outcome. Few published clinical studies address the cell seeding density that was employed. The principal objective of this review is to provide an overview of the cell seeding densities used in cell-based treatments currently available in the clinic for cartilage repair. Select preclinical studies that have informed the use of specific cell seeding densities in the clinic are also discussed.Cartilage 01/2012; 3(2):108-117.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to review the basic science and clinical literature on scaffolds clinically available for the treatment of articular cartilage injuries. The use of tissue-engineered grafts based on scaffolds seems to be as effective as conventional ACI clinically. However, there is limited evidence that scaffold techniques result in homogeneous distribution of cells. Similarly, few studies exist on the maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype in scaffolds. Both of which would be potential advantages over the first generation ACI. The mean clinical score in all of the clinical literature on scaffold techniques significantly improved compared with preoperative values. More than 80% of patients had an excellent or good outcome. None of the short- or mid-term clinical and histological results of these tissue-engineering techniques with scaffolds were reported to be better than conventional ACI. However, some studies suggest that these methods may reduce surgical time, morbidity, and risks of periosteal hypertrophy and post-operative adhesions. Based on the available literature, we were not able to rank the scaffolds available for clinical use. Firm recommendations on which cartilage repair procedure is to be preferred is currently not known on the basis of these studies. Randomized clinical trials and longer follow-up periods are needed for more widespread information regarding the clinical effectiveness of scaffold-based, tissue-engineered cartilage repair.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 12/2008; 17(6):561-77. · 2.21 Impact Factor
Article: Cell Sources for Articular Cartilage Repair Strategies: Shifting from Monocultures to Cocultures.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The repair of articular cartilage is challenging due to the sparse native cell population combined with the avascular and aneural nature of the tissue. In recent years, cartilage tissue engineering has shown great promise. As with all tissue engineering strategies, the possible therapeutic outcome is intimately linked with the used combination of cells, growth factors, and biomaterials. However, the optimal combination has remained a controversial topic and no consensus has been reached. In consequence, much effort has been dedicated, to further design, investigate, and optimize cartilage repair strategies. Specifically, various research groups have performed intensive investigations attempting to identify the single most optimal cell source for articular cartilage repair strategies. However, recent findings indicate that not the heavily investigated monocell source, but the less studied combinations of cell sources in coculture might be more attractive for cartilage repair strategies. This review will give a comprehensive overview on the cell sources that have been investigated for articular cartilage repair strategies. In particular, the advantages and disadvantages of investigated cell sources are comprehensively discussed with emphasis on the potential of cocultures in which benefits are combined, while the disadvantages of single-cell sources for cartilage repair are mitigated.Tissue Engineering Part B Reviews 07/2012; · 4.64 Impact Factor