Skeletal muscle aging in F344BN F1-hybrid rats: I. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the age-associated reduction in VO2max.
ABSTRACT Although mitochondrial DNA damage accumulates in aging skeletal muscles, how this relates to the decline in muscle mass-specific skeletal muscle aerobic function is unknown. We used a pump-perfused rat hind-limb model to examine maximal aerobic performance (VO(2max)) in young adult (YA; 8-9-month-old), late middle aged (LMA; 28-30-month-old) and senescent (SEN; 36-month-old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway F1-hybrid rats at matched rates of convective O(2) delivery (QO(2)). Despite similar muscle QO(2) during a 4-minute contraction bout, muscle mass-specific VO(2max) was reduced in LMA (15%) and SEN (52%) versus YA. In plantaris muscle homogenates, nested polymerase chain reaction revealed an increased frequency of mitochondrial DNA deletions in the older animals. A greater reduction in the flux through electron transport chain complexes I-III than citrate synthase activity in the older animals suggests mitochondrial dysfunction consequent to mitochondrial DNA damage with aging. These results support the hypothesis that a reduced oxidative capacity, due in part to age-related mitochondrial dysfunction, contributes to the decline in aerobic performance in aging skeletal muscles.
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old adult and 32-month-old aged Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) male rats. The FBN rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibits age-dependent atrophy, whereas the soleus muscle, up until 32 months, exhibits markedly fewer signs of atrophy. Both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed, as well as plasma and urine. Compared to adult gastrocnemius, aged gastrocnemius showed evidence of reduced glycolytic metabolism, including accumulation of glycolytic, glycogenolytic, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. Pyruvate was elevated with age, yet levels of citrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were reduced, consistent with mitochondrial abnormalities. Indicative of muscle atrophy, 3-methylhistidine and free amino acids were elevated in aged gastrocnemius. The monounsaturated fatty acids oleate, cis-vaccenate, and palmitoleate also increased in aged gastrocnemius, suggesting altered lipid metabolism. Compared to gastrocnemius, aged soleus exhibited far fewer changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but did show reductions in several glycolytic intermediates, fumarate, malate, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Plasma biochemicals showing the largest age-related increases included glycocholate, heme, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 1-palmitoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, palmitoleate, and creatine. These changes suggest reduced insulin sensitivity in aged FBN rats. Altogether, these data highlight skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of glucose and lipid metabolism consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in aged FBN rats.Biogerontology 03/2014; 15(3). DOI:10.1007/s10522-014-9492-5 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether mitochondrial dysfunction is causally related to muscle atrophy with aging, we examined respiratory capacity, H(2) O(2) emission, and function of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in permeabilized myofibers prepared from four rat muscles that span a range of fiber type and degree of age-related atrophy. Muscle atrophy with aging was greatest in fast-twitch gastrocnemius (Gas) muscle (-38%), intermediate in both the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus (Sol) muscles (-21%), and non-existent in adductor longus (AL) muscle (+47%). In contrast, indices of mitochondrial dysfunction did not correspond to this differential degree of atrophy. Specifically, despite higher protein expression for oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) system in fast Gas and EDL, state III respiratory capacity per myofiber wet weight was unchanged with aging, whereas the slow Sol showed proportional decreases in oxphos protein, citrate synthase activity, and state III respiration. Free radical leak (H(2) O(2) emission per O(2) flux) under state III respiration was higher with aging in the fast Gas, whereas state II free radical leak was higher in the slow AL. Only the fast muscles had impaired mPTP function with aging, with lower mitochondrial calcium retention capacity in EDL and shorter time to mPTP opening in Gas and EDL. Collectively, our results underscore that the age-related changes in muscle mitochondrial function depend largely upon fiber type and are unrelated to the severity of muscle atrophy, suggesting that intrinsic changes in mitochondrial function are unlikely to be causally involved in aging muscle atrophy.Aging cell 09/2011; 10(6):1047-55. DOI:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2011.00745.x · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondria regulate cellular bioenergetics and apoptosis and have been implicated in aging. However, it remains unclear whether age-related loss of muscle mass, known as sarcopenia, is associated with abnormal mitochondrial function. Two technically different approaches have mainly been used to measure mitochondrial function: isolated mitochondria and permeabilized myofiber bundles, but the reliability of these measures in the context of sarcopenia has not been systematically assessed before. A key difference between these approaches is that contrary to isolated mitochondria, permeabilized bundles contain the totality of fiber mitochondria where normal mitochondrial morphology and intracellular interactions are preserved. Using the gastrocnemius muscle from young adult and senescent rats, we show marked effects of aging on three primary indices of mitochondrial function (respiration, H(2) O(2) emission, sensitivity of permeability transition pore to Ca(2+) ) when measured in isolated mitochondria, but to a much lesser degree when measured in permeabilized bundles. Our results clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial isolation procedures typically employed to study aged muscles expose functional impairments not seen in situ. We conclude that aging is associated with more modest changes in mitochondrial function in sarcopenic muscle than suggested previously from isolated organelle studies.Aging cell 12/2010; 9(6):1032-46. DOI:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2010.00628.x · 5.94 Impact Factor