Two cases of pyometrocolpos due to distal vaginal atresia
ABSTRACT Children with pyometrocolpos due to distal vaginal atresia may present as acutely ill, with severe obstructive uropathy and septicemia. In such patients the clinical course is markedly improved by urgent drainage of the infected cystic mass, and a temporary drainage procedure is required to allow local findings of infection to subside before definitive surgery. We present two children with pyometrocolpos with the above-mentioned clinical course, in whom percutaneous drainage with computed tomography-guided catheter placement through the lower abdominal wall was performed because of the high risks of complex drainage procedures and general anesthesia. This drainage did result in dramatically improved clinical status, and findings of local inflammation resolved within 4-6 weeks, which facilitated a later successful definitive surgical procedure.
- SourceAvailable from: clevelandclinic.orgThe Lancet 01/1992; 338(8781):1536-7. DOI:10.1016/0140-6736(91)92364-8 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The overall incidence of clinically important (moderate to severe) OHSS ranges from 1% to 10% of IVF cycles, but only a small proportion (0.5% to 2%) of the cases are severe. In extreme but rare cases, secondary complications such as deep vein thrombosis, respiratory distress and acute hepato-renal failure may occur. The main risk factors are the presence of polycystic ovaries, high ovarian response to superovulation therapy, the use of hCG to trigger the ovulatory process or for luteal phase support, and the endogenous production of hCG by an early pregnancy. The pathogenesis of OHSS is unknown, although the predominant biochemical mediator is thought to be the renin-angiotensin system. Ovarian stimulation should always be carefully monitored to identify those women at risk. In IVF cycles, the hCG injection should be withheld if the risk is judged to be too great. Some women will benefit from a policy of proceeding to collect oocytes, but electively cryopreserving any resulting embryos, thus allowing the ovarian stimulation cycle not to be wasted. The administration of albumin at the time of oocyte collection will reduce the chance of severe OHSS occurring. If a decision is made to proceed with oocyte recovery and embryo transfer, it may be advisable to give 5000 IU of hCG, rather than 10,000 IU, as the ovulatory trigger. Progesterone, and not hCG, should be given in the luteal phase. Women developing mild or moderate OHSS should be kept under outpatient surveillance to detect the minority that may progress to severe OHSS. Those with severe OHSS should be hospitalised for fluid and electrolyte management. Paracentesis under ultrasound guidance is recommended where there are tense ascites, but further surgical intervention should rarely be undertaken and only when there is good clinical evidence of ovarian torsion or haemorrhage.BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 08/2005; 102(10):767 - 772. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1995.tb10840.x · 3.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital obstructing lesions of vagina, hydrometrocolpos, and hematocolpos, present at a variable time during early childhood and adolescence to different medical and surgical specialties. Twenty-six cases presenting over an 18-years period (1987-2005) were divided into three groups; Group A: neonates (6), Group B: adolescents (18), and Group C: adults (2). Common presentations in neonates (Group A) were abdominal mass (5), neonatal sepsis (3), and respiratory distress (2); whereas abdominal pain (18), voiding dysfunctions (13), and backache (7) were prevalent in adolescents (Group B). Adults (Group C) presented with inability to consummate and infertility (2). Four patients received erroneous treatment; exploratory laparotomy (1) and appendectomy (3). Urinary symptoms and associated urinary abnormalities were present in more than 50% of cases, especially those with complex anomalies. Management included excision of imperforate hymen (16) and transverse vaginal septum (8) through perineal (20) and abdominoperineal approach (4). Patients with urogenital sinus (1) and cloacal malformation (1) had staged reconstruction at 2.5 years of age following preliminary vesicostomy and colostomy at birth. On follow up (range 1-15 years; mean 7) more than 60% patients have menstrual irregularity (11), endometriosis (5), and infertility (4). In conclusion, rarity and variable presentation of congenital vaginal obstructions can lead to delayed diagnosis and erroneous management. A high index of suspicion and cross-sectional imaging help in early diagnosis and associated renal anomalies. A comprehensive management is imperative to preserve the reproductive potentials, as significant proportion of patients may experience sexual difficulties, menstrual irregularity, and infertility.Pediatric Surgery International 10/2006; 22(9):749-53. DOI:10.1007/s00383-006-1730-8 · 1.06 Impact Factor