Article

Sonic hedgehog controls stem cell behavior in the postnatal and adult brain

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
Development (Impact Factor: 6.27). 02/2005; 132(2):335-44. DOI: 10.1242/dev.01567
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling controls many aspects of ontogeny, orchestrating congruent growth and patterning. During brain development, Shh regulates early ventral patterning while later on it is critical for the regulation of precursor proliferation in the dorsal brain, namely in the neocortex, tectum and cerebellum. We have recently shown that Shh also controls the behavior of cells with stem cell properties in the mouse embryonic neocortex, and additional studies have implicated it in the control of cell proliferation in the adult ventral forebrain and in the hippocampus. However, it remains unclear whether it regulates adult stem cell lineages in an equivalent manner. Similarly, it is not known which cells respond to Shh signaling in stem cell niches. Here we demonstrate that Shh is required for cell proliferation in the mouse forebrain's subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche and for the production of new olfactory interneurons in vivo. We identify two populations of Gli1+ Shh signaling responding cells: GFAP+ SVZ stem cells and GFAP- precursors. Consistently, we show that Shh regulates the self-renewal of neurosphere-forming stem cells and that it modulates proliferation of SVZ lineages by acting as a mitogen in cooperation with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Together, our data demonstrate a critical and conserved role of Shh signaling in the regulation of stem cell lineages in the adult mammalian brain, highlight the subventricular stem cell astrocytes and their more abundant derived precursors as in vivo targets of Shh signaling, and demonstrate the requirement for Shh signaling in postnatal and adult neurogenesis.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Alan Carleton, Jul 04, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
112 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The olfactory system relies on precise circuitry connecting olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and appropriate relay and processing neurons of the olfactory bulb (OB). In mammals, the exact correspondence between specific olfactory receptor types and individual glomeruli enables a spatially precise map of glomerular activation that corresponds to distinct odors. However, the mechanisms that govern the establishment and maintenance of the glomerular circuitry are largely unknown. Here we show that high levels of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling at multiple sites enable refinement and maintenance of olfactory glomerular circuitry. Mice expressing a mutant version of Shh (Shh(Ala/Ala) ), with impaired binding to proteoglycan co-receptors, exhibit disproportionately small olfactory bulbs containing fewer glomeruli. Notably, in mutant animals the correspondence between individual glomeruli and specific olfactory receptors is lost, as olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptors converge on the same glomeruli. These deficits arise at late stages in post-natal development and continue into adulthood, indicating impaired pruning of erroneous connections within the olfactory bulb. In addition, mature Shh(Ala/Ala) mice exhibit decreased proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ), with particular reduction in neurogenesis of calbindin-expressing periglomerular cells. Thus, Shh interactions with proteoglycan co-receptors function at multiple locations to regulate neurogenesis and precise olfactory connectivity, thereby promoting functional neuronal circuitry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2014.
    Developmental Neurobiology 12/2014; 74(12). DOI:10.1002/dneu.22202 · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and the Notch pathway regulate quiescence and self-renewal of stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ), an adult neurogenic niche. Here we analyze the role at the intersection of these pathways of Tis21 (Btg2/PC3), a gene regulating proliferation and differentiation of adult SVZ stem and progenitor cells. In Tis21-null SVZ and cultured neurospheres, we observed a strong decrease in the expression of BMP4 and its effectors Smad1/8, while the Notch anti-neural mediators Hes1/5 and the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) inhibitors Id1-3 increased. Consistently, expression of the proneural bHLH gene NeuroD1 decreased. Moreover, cyclins D1/2, A2, and E were strongly up-regulated. Thus, in the SVZ Tis21 activates the BMP pathway and inhibits the Notch pathway and the cell cycle. Correspondingly, the Tis21-null SVZ stem cells greatly increased; nonetheless, the proliferating neuroblasts diminished, whereas the post-mitotic neuroblasts paradoxically accumulated in SVZ, failing to migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. The ability, however, of neuroblasts to migrate from SVZ explants was not affected, suggesting that Tis21-null neuroblasts do not migrate to the olfactory bulb because of a defect in terminal differentiation. Notably, BMP4 addition or Id3 silencing rescued the defective differentiation observed in Tis21-null neurospheres, indicating that they mediate the Tis21 pro-differentiative action. The reduced number of granule neurons in the Tis21-null olfactory bulb led to a defect in olfactory detection threshold, without effect on olfactory memory, also suggesting that within olfactory circuits new granule neurons play a primary role in odor sensitivity rather than in memory.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 04/2014; 8:98. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00098 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) plays a critical role in the development of different tissues. In the central nervous system, SHH is well known to contribute to the patterning of the spinal cord and separation of the brain hemispheres. In addition, it has recently been shown that SHH signaling also contributes to the patterning of the telencephalon and establishment of adult neurogenic niches. In this work, we investigated whether SHH signaling influences the behavior of neural progenitors isolated from the dorsal telencephalon, which generate excitatory neurons and macroglial cells in vitro. We observed that SHH increases proliferation of cortical progenitors and generation of astrocytes, whereas blocking SHH signaling with cyclopamine has opposite effects. In both cases, generation of neurons did not seem to be affected. However, cell survival was broadly affected by blockade of SHH signaling. SHH effects were related to three different cell phenomena: mode of cell division, cell cycle length and cell growth. Together, our data in vitro demonstrate that SHH signaling controls cell behaviors that are important for proliferation of cerebral cortex progenitors, as well as differentiation and survival of neurons and astroglial cells.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 03/2014; 8:77. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00077 · 4.18 Impact Factor