Article

Priority List of Research Areas for Radiological Nuclear Threat Countermeasures

Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland 20889-5603, USA.
Radiation Research (Impact Factor: 2.45). 02/2005; 163(1):115-23. DOI: 10.1667/RR3283
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To help the nation prepare for the possibility of a terrorist attack using radiological and nuclear devices, the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the Homeland Security Council established an interagency working group. The working group deliberated on the research needs for radiological/ nuclear threat countermeasures and identified and prioritized 18 areas for further attention. The highest priorities were given to research on (1) radioprotectors for use prior to exposure; (2) therapeutic agents for postexposure treatment; (3) antimicrobial therapy for infections associated with radiation exposure; (4) cytokines and growth factors; (5) mechanisms of radiation injury at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organism levels; and (6) automation of biodosimetric assays. High priority was given to (1) developing biomarkers for biodosimetry; (2) enhancing training in the radiation sciences; (3) exploring the consequences of combined injury; (4) establishing a repository of information regarding investigational countermeasures; and (5) following the health of an exposed population to better prepare for subsequent events. The research areas that the committee felt required the attention of the radiation research community are described in this report in an effort to inform this community about the needs of the nation and to encourage researchers to address these critical issues.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Terry Pellmar, Jun 30, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
118 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Combined approaches to the treatment of acute radiation disease are preferred to single-agent therapies due to proven or anticipated better outcomes comprising increased therapeutic efficacy and decreased incidence of undesirable side effects. Our studies on post-exposure treatment of mice irradiated by sublethal or lethal doses of ionizing radiation included testing the effectiveness of meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, and IB-MECA, an adenosine A3 receptor agonist. The efficacy of meloxicam and IB-MECA to positively influence the progress of the acute radiation disease has been tested in situations of their combined administration with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or with each other. The results of our studies revealed a significantly improved regeneration of hematopoietic cell populations ranging from the bone marrow progenitor cells to mature blood cells following combined treatments. Also, survival of mice exposed to lethal radiation doses was highest in the animals treated with a combination of the two drugs. It can be inferred from the results that if the drug combinations employed were used in humans, e.g. in the treatment of victims of radiation accidents, a better therapeutic outcome could be expected. Therefore, further studies directed at clinical applications of meloxicam and IB-MECA in radiation victims is recommended.
    Central European Journal of Biology 06/2014; 9(6). DOI:10.2478/s11535-014-0295-0 · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The authors demonstrate the efficacy of a bridging therapy in a preclinical animal model that allows the lymphohematopoietic system of severely immunocompromised individuals exposed to acute, high-dose ionizing irradiation to recover and to survive. CD2F1 mice were irradiated acutely with high doses causing severe, potentially fatal hematopoietic or gastrointestinal injuries and then transfused intravenously with progenitor-enriched, whole blood, or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from mice injected with tocopherol succinate- and AMD3100- (a chemokine receptor anatogonist used to improve the yield of mobilized progenitors). Survival of these mice over a 30-d period was used as the primary measured endpoint of therapeutic effectiveness. The authors demonstrate that tocopherol succinate and AMD3100 mobilize progenitors into peripheral circulation and that the infusion of mobilized progenitor enriched blood or mononuclear cells acts as a bridging therapy for lymphohematopoietic system recovery in mice exposed to whole-body ionizing irradiation. The results demonstrate that infusion of whole blood or blood mononuclear cells from tocopherol succinate (TS)- and AMD3100-injected mice improved the survival of mice receiving high radiation doses significantly. The efficacy of TS-injected donor mice blood or mononuclear cells was comparable to that of blood or cells obtained from mice injected with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Donor origin-mobilized progenitors were found to localize in various tissues. The authors suggest that tocopherol succinate is an optimal agent for mobilizing progenitors with significant therapeutic potential. The extent of progenitor mobilization that tocopherol succinate elicits in experimental mice is comparable quantitatively to clinically used drugs such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and AMD3100. Therefore, it is proposed that tocopherol succinate be considered for further translational development and ultimately for use in humans.
    Health physics 06/2014; 106(6):689-98. DOI:10.1097/HP.0000000000000089 · 0.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preclinical Research There is a pressing need to develop safe and effective radioprotector/radiomitigator agents for use in accidental or terrorist-initiated radiological emergencies. Naturally occurring vitamin E family constituents, termed tocols, that include the tocotrienols, are known to have radiation-protection properties. These agents, which work through multiple mechanisms, are promising radioprotectant agents having minimal toxicity. Although α-tocopherol (AT) is the most commonly studied form of vitamin E, the tocotrienols are more potent than AT in providing radioprotection and radiomitigation. Unfortunately, despite their very significant radioprotectant activity, tocotrienols have very short plasma half-lives and require dosing at very high levels to achieve necessary therapeutic benefits. Thus, it would be highly desirable to develop new vitamin E analogues with improved pharmacokinetic properties, specifically increased elimination half-life and increased area under the plasma level versus time curve. The short elimination half-life of the tocotrienols is related to their low affinity for the α-tocopherol transfer protein (ATTP), the protein responsible for maintaining the plasma level of the tocols. Tocotrienols have less affinity for ATTP than does AT, and thus have a longer residence time in the liver, putting them at higher risk for metabolism and biliary excretion. We hypothesized that the low-binding affinity of tocotrienols to ATTP is due to the relatively more rigid tail structure of the tocotrienols in comparison with that of the tocopherols. Therefore, compounds with a more flexible tail would have better binding to ATTP and consequently would have longer elimination half-life and, consequently, an increased exposure to drug, as measured by area under the plasma drug level versus time curve (AUC). This represents an enhanced residence of drug in the systemic circulation. Based on this hypothesis, we developed a new class of vitamin E analogues, the tocoflexols, which maintain the superior bioactivity of the tocotrienols with the potential to achieve the longer half-life and larger AUC of the tocopherols.
    Drug Development Research 02/2014; 75(1):10-22. DOI:10.1002/ddr.21162 · 0.73 Impact Factor