CD26 (dipeptidyl-peptidase IV)-dependent recruitment of T cells in a rat asthma model.
ABSTRACT CD26 truncates several chemokines as well as neuropeptides and influences immune responses via modulation of cell adhesion and T cell activation, suggesting an involvement of CD26 in asthmatic and airway inflammation. Therefore, Fischer 344 (F344), Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis (LEW) rat strains, which differ in their CD26-like enzymatic activity, were compared using an asthma model. Additionally, two CD26-deficient mutant F344 rat substrains were included and compared to the wild-type F344 substrain. Immunization was performed twice with ovalbumin (OVA), and 2 weeks later the rats were challenged with OVA intratracheally Flow cytometry (FACS) analysis of different leucocyte subsets as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgE levels in the blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed 24 h after challenge. LEW rats with the lowest CD26 activity among the rat strains investigated here displayed significantly reduced CD4+ T cell numbers in the BAL compared to wild-type F344 and BN rats. Moreover, in asthma, the ratio of CD26+ to CD26- T cell receptor (TCR)-positive cells increased significantly in F344 and LEW but not BN rats. Most intriguingly, in both CD26-deficient F344 rat substrains the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes was markedly reduced compared to wild-type F344. The decrease in T cell recruitment observed in the CD26-deficient rats was associated with significantly reduced OVA-specific IgE-titres. This is the first report to show a remarkably reduced T cell recruitment in rat strains that either lack or exhibit reduced CD26-like enzymatic activity, suggesting a role for CD26 in the pathogenesis of asthma via T cell-dependent processes such as antibody production.
Article: Targeting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) suppresses autoimmune encephalomyelitis and up-regulates TGF-beta 1 secretion in vivo.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CD26 or dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV) is expressed on various cell types, including T cells. Although T cells can receive activating signals via CD26, the physiological role of CD26/DP IV is largely unknown. We used the reversible DP IV inhibitor Lys[Z(NO(2))]-pyrrolidide (I40) to dissect the role of DP IV in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and to explore the therapeutic potential of DP IV inhibition for autoimmunity. I40 administration in vivo decreased and delayed clinical and neuropathological signs of adoptive transfer EAE. I40 blocked DP IV activity in vivo and increased the secretion of the immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-beta1 in spinal cord tissue and plasma during acute EAE. In vitro, while suppressing autoreactive T cell proliferation and TNF-alpha production, I40 consistently up-regulated TGF-beta1 secretion. A neutralizing anti-TGF-beta1 Ab blocked the inhibitory effect of I40 on T cell proliferation to myelin Ag. DP IV inhibition in vivo was not generally immunosuppressive, neither eliminating encephalitogenic T cells nor inhibiting T cell priming. These data suggest that DP IV inhibition represents a novel and specific therapeutic approach protecting from autoimmune disease by a mechanism that includes an active TGF-beta1-mediated antiinflammatory effect at the site of pathology.The Journal of Immunology 03/2001; 166(3):2041-8. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: Localization, transmission, spontaneous mutations, and variation of function of the Dpp4 (Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV; CD26) gene in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV) is involved in endocrine and immune functions via cleavage of regulatory peptides with a N-terminal proline or alanine such as incretins, neuropeptide Y, or several chemokines. So far no systematic investigations on the localization and transmission of the Dpp4 gene or the natural variations of DPPIV-like enzymatic function in different rat strains have been conducted. Here we mapped the Dpp4 gene to rat chromosome 3 and describe a semi-dominant mode of inheritance for Dpp4 in a mutant F344/DuCrj(DPPIV-) rat substrain lacking endogenous DPPIV-like activity. This mutant F344/DuCrj(DPPIV-) rat substrain constantly exhibits a nearly complete lack of DPPIV-like enzymatic activity, while segregation of DPPIV-like enzymatic activity was observed in another DPPIV-negative F344/Crl(Ger/DPPIV-) rat substrain. Screening of 12 different inbred laboratory rat strains revealed dramatic differences in DPPIV-like activity ranging from 11 mU/microl (LEW/Ztm rats) to 40 mU/microl (BN/Ztm and DA/Ztm rats). A lack of DPPIV-like activity in F344 rats was associated with an improved glucose tolerance and blunted natural killer cell function, which indicates the pleiotropic functional role of DPPIV in vivo. Overall, the variations in DPPIV-like enzymatic activity probably represent important confounding factors in studies using rat models for research on regulatory peptides.Regulatory Peptides 10/2003; 115(2):81-90. · 2.11 Impact Factor
Article: Kinetics and quantitation of eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment to allergic lung inflammation in a brown Norway rat model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We quantitated neutrophil and eosinophil migration into lung parenchyma using specific peroxidase enzyme assays, and into the bronchoalveolar compartment by bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF), in sensitized brown Norway (BN), Fischer, and Lewis rats and also assessed the lungs by histopathology. Fourteen days after sensitization with ovalbumin (OA in alum [given subcutaneously] and OA with Bordetella pertussis [given intraperitoneally]), rats were challenged with an OA aerosol for 1 h. In BN rats, there was marked perivascular and peribronchial edema, focal hemorrhages, and increase in lung wet weight and BALF protein content, accompanied by neutrophilic infiltration at 3-14 h postchallenge. Few eosinophils were seen at 14 h in lung tissue or in BALF. Neutrophils peaked at 24 h in parenchyma ([94 +/- 7] x 10) and in BALF ([2.7 +/- 0.4] x 10) and declined rapidly thereafter. Marked eosinophil infiltration into parenchyma was apparent by 24 h. Eosinophil accumulation peaked at 48 h in parenchyma ([127 +/- 18] x 10) and at 72 h in BALF ([10 +/- 2.4] x 10), comprising up to 85% of lavage cells at this time. Lung eosinophilia persisted for at least 6 d with only a slow decline or clearance, not approximating baseline until day 13 after challenge. Histopathology showed peribronchial and interstitial eosinophilic pneumonia, most severe on day 3. In contrast to the BN rats, essentially no pulmonary inflammation was observed in Lewis and Fischer rats. This model in the BN rat, and the specific peroxidase assays for quantitating tissue eosinophils and neutrophils, should be useful for investigating the regulation of allergen-induced eosinophil and neutrophil migration into and clearance from the lung.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 01/1998; 17(6):702-12. · 5.13 Impact Factor