SIEGE: Smoking Induced Epithelial Gene Expression Database

Bioinformatics Program, College of Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Nucleic Acids Research (Impact Factor: 8.81). 02/2005; 33(Database issue):D573-9. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gki035
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The SIEGE (Smoking Induced Epithelial Gene Expression) database is a clinical resource for compiling and analyzing gene expression data from epithelial cells of the human intra-thoracic airway. This database supports a translational research study whose goal is to profile the changes in airway gene expression that are induced by cigarette smoke. RNA is isolated from airway epithelium obtained at bronchoscopy from current-, former- and never-smoker subjects, and hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133A Genechips, which measure the level of expression of approximately 22,500 human transcripts. The microarray data generated along with relevant patient information is uploaded to SIEGE by study administrators using the database's web interface, found at PERL-coded scripts integrated with SIEGE perform various quality control functions including the processing, filtering and formatting of stored data. The R statistical package is used to import database expression values and execute a number of statistical analyses including t-tests, correlation coefficients and hierarchical clustering. Values from all statistical analyses can be queried through CGI-based tools and web forms found on the 'Search' section of the database website. Query results are embedded with graphical capabilities as well as with links to other databases containing valuable gene resources, including Entrez Gene, GO, Biocarta, GeneCards, dbSNP and the NCBI Map Viewer.

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    ABSTRACT: Gene expression changes resulting from conditions such as disease, environmental stimuli, and drug use, can be monitored in the blood. However, a less invasive method of sample collection is of interest because of the discomfort and specialized personnel necessary for blood sampling especially if multiple samples are being collected. Buccal mucosa cells are easily collected and may be an alternative sample material for biomarker testing. A limited number of studies, primarily in the smoker/oral cancer literature, address this tissue's efficacy as an RNA source for expression analysis. The current study was undertaken to determine if total RNA isolated from buccal mucosa could be used as an alternative tissue source to assay relative gene expression. Total RNA was isolated from swabs, reverse transcribed and amplified. The amplified cDNA was used in RT-qPCR and microarray analyses to evaluate gene expression in buccal cells. Initially, RT-qPCR was used to assess relative transcript levels of four genes from whole blood and buccal cells collected from the same seven individuals, concurrently. Second, buccal cell RNA was used for microarray-based differential gene expression studies by comparing gene expression between a group of female smokers and nonsmokers. An amplification protocol allowed use of less buccal cell total RNA (50 ng) than had been reported previously with human microarrays. Total RNA isolated from buccal cells was degraded but was of sufficient quality to be used with RT-qPCR to detect expression of specific genes. We report here the finding of a small number of statistically significant differentially expressed genes between smokers and nonsmokers, using buccal cells as starting material. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis confirmed that these genes had a similar expression pattern to results from another study. Our results suggest that despite a high degree of degradation, RNA from buccal cells from cheek mucosa could be used to detect differential gene expression between smokers and nonsmokers. However the RNA degradation, increase in sample variability and microarray failure rate show that buccal samples should be used with caution as source material in expression studies.
    BMC Medical Genomics 06/2010; 3:24. DOI:10.1186/1755-8794-3-24 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aldo-keto reductase (AKR) gene superfamily codes for monomeric, soluble reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent oxidoreductases that mediate elimination reactions. AKR1B10, an AKR that eliminates retinals, has been observed as upregulated in squamous metaplasia and non-small cell lung cancer and has been suggested as a diagnostic marker specific to tobacco-related carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that upregulation of AKR1B10 expression may be initiated in healthy smokers prior to the development of evidence of lung cancer. Expression of AKR1B10 was assessed at the mRNA level using microarrays with TaqMan confirmation in the large airway epithelium (21 healthy nonsmokers, 31 healthy smokers) and small airway epithelium (51 healthy nonsmokers, 58 healthy smokers) obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and brushing. Compared with healthy nonsmokers, AKR1B10 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in both large and small airway epithelia of healthy smokers. Consistent with the mRNA data, AKR1B10 protein was significantly upregulated in the airway epithelium of healthy smokers as assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, with AKR1B10 expressed in both differentiated and basal cells. Finally, cigarette smoke extract mediated upregulation of AKR1B10 in airway epithelial cells in vitro, and transfection of AKR1B10 into airway epithelial cells enhanced the conversion of retinal to retinol. Smoking per se mediates upregulation of AKR1B10 expression in the airway epithelia of healthy smokers with no evidence of lung cancer. In the context of these observations and the link of AKR1B10 to the metabolism of retinals and to lung cancer, the smoking-induced upregulation of AKR1B10 may be an early process in the multiple events leading to lung cancer.
    Chest 12/2010; 138(6):1402-10. DOI:10.1378/chest.09-2634 · 7.13 Impact Factor

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