Article

Bnip3L is induced by p53 under hypoxia, and its knockdown promotes tumor growth

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Cancer Cell (Impact Factor: 23.89). 01/2005; 6(6):597-609. DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2004.10.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT p53-dependent apoptosis is a major determinant of its tumor suppressor activity and can be triggered by hypoxia. No p53 target is known to be induced by p53 or to mediate p53-dependent apoptosis during hypoxia. We report that p53 can directly upregulate expression of Bnip3L, a cell death inducer. During hypoxia, Bnip3L is highly induced in wild-type p53-expressing cells, in part due to increased recruitment of p53 and CBP to Bnip3L. Apoptosis is reduced in hypoxia-exposed cells with functional p53 following Bnip3L knockdown. In vivo, Bnip3L knockdown promotes tumorigenicity of wild-type versus mutant p53-expressing tumors. Thus, Bnip3L, capable of attenuating tumorigenicity, mediates p53-dependent apoptosis under hypoxia, which provides a novel understanding of p53 in tumor suppression.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Eric J Bernhard, Jul 02, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
142 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia stabilizes the tumour suppressor p53, allowing it to function primarily as a transrepressor; however, the function of p53 during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we showed that p53 suppressed BNIP3 expression by directly binding to the p53-response element motif and recruiting corepressor mSin3a to the BNIP3 promoter. The DNA-binding site of p53 must remain intact for the protein to suppress the BNIP3 promoter. In addition, taking advantage of zebrafish as an in vivo model, we confirmed that zebrafish nip3a, a homologous gene of mammalian BNIP3, was indeed induced by hypoxia and p53 mutation/knockdown enhanced nip3a expression under hypoxia resulted in cell death enhancement in p53 mutant embryos. Furthermore, p53 protected against hypoxia-induced cell death mediated by p53 suppression of BNIP3 as illustrated by p53 knockdown/loss assays in both human cell lines and zebrafish model, which is in contrast to the traditional pro-apoptotic role of p53. Our results suggest a novel function of p53 in hypoxia-induced cell death, leading to the development of new treatments for ischaemic heart disease and cerebral stroke.
    The EMBO Journal 08/2011; 30(16):3397-415. DOI:10.1038/emboj.2011.248 · 10.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stromal expression of hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) are associated with a poorer prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Tumour cell death, regulated by a hypoxic stromal microenvironment, could be of importance in this respect. Therefore, we correlated apoptosis, TP53 mutational status and BNIP3 promoter hypermethylation of CRC cells with HIF-2α- and CA9-related poor outcome. In a series of 195 CRCs, TP53 mutations in exons 5–8 were analysed by direct sequencing, and promoter hypermethylation of BNIP3 was determined by methylation-specific PCR. Expressions of HIF-2α, CA9, p53, BNIP3 and M30 were analysed immunohistochemically. Poorer survival of HIF-2α and CA9 stromal-positive CRCs was associated with wild-type TP53 (P=0.001 and P=0.0391), but not with BNIP3 methylation. Furthermore, apoptotic levels were independent of the TP53 status, but lower in unmethylated BNIP3 CRCs (P=0.004). It appears that wild-type TP53 in CRC cells favours the progression of tumours expressing markers for hypoxia in their stroma, rather than in the epithelial compartment. Preserved BNIP3 function in CRC cells lowers apoptosis, and may thus be involved in alternative cell death pathways, such as autophagic cell death. However, BNIP3 silencing in tumour cells does not impact on hypoxia-driven poorer prognosis. These results suggest that the biology of CRC cells can be modified by alterations in the tumour microenvironment under conditions of tumour hypoxia.
    British Journal of Cancer 10/2008; 99(5):727-33. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604547 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The p53 tumour suppressor is involved in several crucial cellular functions including cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. p53 stabilization occurs under hypoxic and DNA damage conditions. However, only in the latter scenario is stabilized p53 capable of inducing the expression of its pro-apoptotic targets. Here we present evidence that under hypoxia-mimicking conditions p53 acetylation is reduced to a greater extent at K320 site targeted by P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) than at K382 site targeted by p300/CBP. The limited amounts of acetylated p53 at K320 are preferentially recruited to the promoter of the p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene, which appears to be unaffected by hypoxia, but are not recruited to the BID promoter and hence p53 is incapable of upregulating pro-apoptotic BID in hypoxic conditions. As the K320 p53 acetylation is the site predominantly affected in hypoxia, the PCAF histone acetyltransferase activity is the key regulator of the cellular fate modulated by p53 under these conditions. In addition, we provide evidence that PCAF acetylates hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in hypoxic conditions and that the acetylated HIF-1alpha is recruited to a particular subset of its targets. In conclusion, PCAF regulates the balance between cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in hypoxia by modulating the activity and protein stability of both p53 and HIF-1alpha.
    Oncogene 07/2008; 27(44):5785-96. DOI:10.1038/onc.2008.192 · 8.56 Impact Factor