Article

Lack of sustained regression of c-MYC-induced mammary adenocarcinomas following brief or prolonged MYC inactivation.

Department of Cancer Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Cancer Cell (Impact Factor: 23.89). 01/2005; 6(6):577-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2004.10.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent studies of oncogene dependence in conditional transgenic mice have suggested the exciting possibility that transient or prolonged MYC inactivation may be sufficient for sustained reversal of the tumorigenic process. In contrast, we report here that following oncogene downregulation, the majority of c-MYC-induced mammary adenocarcinomas grow in the absence of MYC overexpression. In addition, residual neoplastic cells persist from virtually all tumors that do regress to a nonpalpable state and these residual cells rapidly recover their malignant properties following MYC reactivation or spontaneously recur in a MYC-independent manner. Thus, MYC-induced mammary tumor cells subjected to either brief or prolonged MYC inactivation remain exquisitely sensitive to its oncogenic effects and characteristically progress to a state in which growth is MYC-independent.

0 Followers
 · 
75 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased glucose utilization is a hallmark of human cancer that is used to image tumors clinically. In this widely used application, glucose uptake by tumors is monitored by positron emission tomography (PET) of the labeled glucose analog F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Despite its widespread clinical use, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine FDG uptake - a tool that can monitor tumor heterogeneity - remain poorly understood. In this study, we compared FDG uptake in mammary tumors driven by the Akt1, c-MYC, HER2/neu, Wnt1 or H-Ras oncogenes in genetically engineered mice, correlating it to tumor growth, cell proliferation and levels of gene expression involved in key steps of glycolytic metabolism. We found that FDG uptake by tumors was dictated principally by the driver oncogene and was not independently associated with tumor growth or cellular proliferation. Oncogene downregulation resulted in a rapid decrease in FDG uptake, preceding effects on tumor regression, irrespective of the baseline level of uptake. FDG uptake correlated positively with expression of hexokinase-2 (HK2) and HIF-1α and associated negatively with PFK-2b expression and p-AMPK. The correlation of HK2 and FDG uptake was independent of all variables tested, including the initiating oncogene, suggesting that HK2 is an independent predictor of FDG uptake. In contrast, expression of Glut1 was correlated with FDG uptake only in tumors driven by Akt or HER2/neu. Together, these results showed that the oncogenic pathway activated within a tumor is a primary determinant of its FDG uptake, mediated by key glycolytic enzymes that provide a framework to interpret effects on this key parameter in clinical imaging.
    Cancer Research 09/2014; 74(24). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-1235 · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Malignant gliomas rank among the most lethal cancers. Gliomas display a striking cellular heterogeneity with a hierarchy of differentiation states. Recent studies support the existence of cancer stem cells in gliomas that are functionally defined by their capacity for extensive self-renewal and formation of secondary tumors that phenocopy the original tumors. As the c-Myc oncoprotein has recognized roles in normal stem cell biology, we hypothesized that c-Myc may contribute to cancer stem cell biology as these cells share characteristics with normal stem cells. Methodology/Principal Findings: Based on previous methods that we and others have employed, tumor cell populations were enriched or depleted for cancer stem cells using the stem cell marker CD133 (Prominin-1). We characterized c-Myc expression in matched tumor cell populations using real time PCR, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Here we report that c-Myc is highly expressed in glioma cancer stem cells relative to non-stem glioma cells. To interrogate the significance of c-Myc expression in glioma cancer stem cells, we targeted its expression using lentivirally transduced short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Knockdown of c-Myc in glioma cancer stem cells reduced proliferation with concomitant cell cycle arrest in the G 0 /G 1 phase and increased apoptosis. Non-stem glioma cells displayed limited dependence on c-Myc expression for survival and proliferation. Further, glioma cancer stem cells with decreased c-Myc levels failed to form neurospheres in vitro or tumors when xenotransplanted into the brains of immunocompromised mice. Conclusions/Significance: These findings support a central role of c-Myc in regulating proliferation and survival of glioma cancer stem cells. Targeting core stem cell pathways may offer improved therapeutic approaches for advanced cancers.
    PLoS ONE 11/2008; 3(11):e3769. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have proven essential to the study of mammalian gene function in both development and disease. However, traditional constitutive transgenic mouse model systems are limited by the temporal and spatial characteristics of the experimental promoter used to drive transgene expression. To address this limitation, considerable effort has been dedicated to developing conditional and inducible mouse model systems. Although a number of approaches to generating inducible GEMMs have been pursued, several have been restricted by toxic or undesired physiological side effects of the compounds used to activate gene expression. The development of tetracycline (tet)-dependent regulatory systems has allowed for circumvention of these issues resulting in the widespread adoption of these systems as an invaluable tool for modeling the complex nature of cancer progression.
    Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 10/2014; 2014(10):pdb.top069823. DOI:10.1101/pdb.top069823 · 4.63 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from