A double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, prospective pilot study of the partial mu opiate agonist, buprenorphine, for acute detoxification from heroin.
ABSTRACT The optimum dose of buprenorphine for acute inpatient heroin detoxification has not been determined. This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, pilot study compares two buprenorphine sublingual tablet dosing schedules to oral clonidine. Heroin users (N = 30) who met DSM-IV criteria for opioid dependence and achieved a Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) score of 13 (moderate withdrawal), were randomized to receive higher dose buprenorphine (HD, 8-8-8-4-2 mg/day on days 1-5), lower dose buprenorphine (LD, 2-4-8-4-2 mg/day on days 1-5), or clonidine (C, 0.2-0.3-0.3-0.2-0.1 mg QID on days 1-5). COWS scores were obtained QID. Twenty-four hours after randomization, the percentages of subjects who achieved suppression of withdrawal, as defined by four consecutive COWS scores <12, were: C = 11%, LD = 40%, and HD = 60%. Generalized estimating equation regression models, controlling for baseline COWS and time, indicated that COWS scores over the course of 5 days were lower in both LD and HD compared to C (chi(2)(2) = 13.28, P = 0.001). Similar analyses examining scores over time on the Adjective Rating Scale for Withdrawal (ARSW) and on a Visual Analog Scale of Opiate Craving (VAS) indicated an overall treatment effect on the VAS accounted for by a significant difference between HD and C, but no overall treatment effect on the ARSW. There were no discontinuations due to treatment-related adverse events. Both HD and LD regimens are safe and efficacious treatment for opioid detoxification, but HD demonstrated superiority to C on a greater number of measures.
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ABSTRACT: Oral dosage forms and traditional transdermal patches are inadequate for complex clonidine therapy dosing schemes, because of the variable dose/flux requirement for the treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro transdermal flux changes of clonidine in response to alterations in carbon nanotube (CNT) delivery rates by applying various electrical bias. Additional skin diffusion studies were carried out to demonstrate the therapeutic feasibility of the system. This study demonstrated that application of a small electrical bias (−600 mV) to the CNT membrane on the skin resulted in a 4.7-fold increase in clonidine flux as compared with no bias (0 mV) application. The high and low clonidine flux values were very close to the desired variable flux of clonidine for the treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms. Therapeutic feasibility studies demonstrated that CNT membrane served as the rate-limiting step to clonidine diffusion and lag and transition times were suitable for the clonidine therapy. Skin elimination studies revealed that clonidine depletion from the skin would not negatively affect clonidine therapy. Overall, this study showed that clonidine administration difficulties associated with the treatment of opiate withdrawal symptoms can be reduced with the programmable CNT membrane transdermal system. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm SciJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 04/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most patients relapse to opioids within one month of opioid agonist detoxification, making the antecedents and parallel processes of first use critical for investigation. Craving and withdrawal are often studied in relationship to opioid outcomes, and a novel analytic strategy applied to these two phenomena may indicate targeted intervention strategies.Addictive Behaviors 09/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor