GSK3 and PKB/Akt are associated with integrin-mediated regulation of PTHrP, IL-6 and IL-8 expression in FG pancreatic cancer cells. Int J Cancer

Department of Surgery, University of California, San Diego, CA 92161, USA.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.09). 04/2005; 114(4):522-30. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.20748
Source: PubMed


We have demonstrated recently that PTHrP is upregulated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and that the ECM exerts regulatory control, at least in part, over PTHrP expression. In our present study, we examined the potential signaling interactions between these 2 pathways. Our results demonstrate that, under serum-free conditions, adhesion of FG pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells on Fn is mediated by the alpha5beta1 integrin, whereas adhesion to Type I collagen is mediated by the alpha2beta1 integrin. alpha5beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to Fn results in a phenotype that includes a reduction in cell proliferation, increased E-cadherin localization in cell-cell contacts, increased beta-catenin localization throughout the cell, inhibition of haptokinetic cell migration, and increased expression of PTHrP, IL-6 and IL-8 relative to alpha2beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion on Type I collagen. A phosphoprotein immunoblotting screen of FG pancreatic cancer cells grown on either Fn or Type I collagen indicates that GSK3 and PKB/Akt are differentially phosphorylated on these 2 substrates. These results implicate GSK3 and PKB/Akt in the integrin-mediated regulation of PTHrP, IL-6 and IL-8 in pancreatic cancer.

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    • "Type I collagen markedly stimulates cytokine expression in metastatic HNSCC cell lines compared with that of the primary cancer cell line. Cytokine expression stimulated by type-I collagen has also been seen in cancer cell lines derived from breast and pancreatic cancers (Grzesiak et al., 2005; Hirtenlehne et al., 2002). Evidence is also presented that cytokines stimulate MMP activity and enhance the invasion of HNSCC cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the effects of gingival fibroblasts, type I collagen and autocrine/paracrine elements on cytokine expression in paired primary and metastatic human squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. Additionally, the effects of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta and HGF on MMPs and cell invasion were investigated. RT-PCR results indicated the presence of mRNAs for IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta in primary and metastatic HNSCC cell lines but high expression of cytokines was not a prerequisite for metastatic cancer cells. HGF mRNA was not detected in the cancer cell lines. Co-culturing of HNSCC cells with fibroblasts caused increases in cytokine expression. Type I collagen and conditioned media derived from HNSCC cells or fibroblasts enhanced cytokine expression in the cancer cells. Cytokines also enhanced MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymatic activities as well as HNSCC cell invasion. Our findings suggest that the interactions between cancer cells, the extracellular matrix and fibroblasts, as mediated by cytokines, play important roles in the progression of HNSCC.
    Cell Biology International 12/2008; 33(2):165-73. DOI:10.1016/j.cellbi.2008.10.009 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    • "We have previously shown that α2β1 integrin-mediated adhesion on type I collagen promotes the malignant phenotype in FG pancreatic cells, as defined by increased proliferation and haptokinetic cell migration, downregulated expression and localisation of E-cadherin and β-catenin in cell–cell contacts, increased phosphorylation of GSK3β and PKB/Akt, and downregulated expression of PTHrP, IL-6, and IL-8 compared to fibronectin, type IV collagen, laminin, or vitronectin (Grzesiak et al, 2004, 2005a). These results are in agreement with previous studies demonstrating in Panc-1, BxPC-3, and PaTu8988s pancreatic cancer cells that type I collagen downregulates E-cadherin expression, resulting in increased proliferation and migration compared to fibronectin (Menke et al, 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is characterised by a hallmark desmoplastic response that includes upregulated expression of the extracellular matrix, and type I collagen in particular. Recent studies indicate that pancreatic cancer cells stimulate type I collagen synthesis in adjacent stellate cells, and that this upregulated type I collagen expression promotes the malignant phenotype in tumour cells as defined by increased proliferation, resistance to chemically induced apoptosis, and increased tumorigenesis. The integrin specificity of this interaction between type I collagen and tumour cells was not identified, however. In the present study, we examined eight pancreatic cancer cell lines for adhesion, proliferation, and migration, on types I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin, as well as integrin expression. Our results indicate, for the overwhelming majority of cell lines, that type I collagen promotes the strongest adhesion, proliferation, and migration relative to the other substrates tested. Utilising function-blocking monoclonal antibodies directed against particular integrin subunits in cell adhesion and migration inhibition assays, we demonstrate further that the malignant phenotype on type I collagen is mediated specifically by the alpha2beta1 integrin. These results identify alpha2beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to type I collagen as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
    British Journal of Cancer 06/2006; 94(9):1311-9. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603088 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have shown in FG pancreatic cancer cells that alpha2beta1 integrin-mediated type I collagen adhesion decreases parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression, decreases the localization of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in cell-cell contacts, increases cell migration, and increases glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) phosphorylation states relative to alpha5beta1 integrin-mediated fibronectin (Fn) adhesion. To extend our observations in FG cells to other pancreatic cancer cell lines, and to determine whether E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and its downstream effectors were functionally involved in the ECM-mediated regulation of PTHrP, IL-6, and IL-8. We used standard biochemical techniques to determine ECM-specific differences in E-cadherin and beta-catenin localization, GSK3 and PKB/Akt phosphorylation, haptokinetic cell migration, and cytokine expression in pancreatic cancer cells. We also conducted functional studies using pharmacological inhibitors for GSK3 and PKB/Akt, as well as elevated Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios similar to pancreatic juice, and examined their effects on cytokine expression. Differences in E-cadherin and beta-catenin localization along with GSK3 and PKB/Akt phosphorylation occur in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines, resulting in differences in ECM-mediated haptokinesis and cytokine expression that are generally consistent with previous observations in FG cells. Our functional studies also suggest that E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and downstream effectors are involved in PTHrP, IL-6, and IL-8 expression. These data indicate that alpha2beta1 integrin-mediated type I collagen adhesion disrupts cell-cell adhesion architecture, resulting in increased migration and decreased PTHrP, IL-6, and IL-8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells.
    International Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer 02/2005; 36(3):131-46. DOI:10.1385/IJGC:36:3:131
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