Brain activation gradients in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex related to persistence of ADHD in adolescent boys.
ABSTRACT To explore the possible role that functional abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia play in the persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years.
Ten male adolescents who were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood were grouped into those who continued to meet full diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV ADHD (persisters; n = 5) and those in whom symptoms had remitted sufficiently to warrant a diagnosis of ADHD in partial remission (remitters; n = 5). Persisters, remitters, and five carefully matched controls with no history of ADHD were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a go/no-go task.
Parallel linear trends were found in performance on the go/no-go task and activation of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, such that persisters made the most commission errors (33%) and showed the greatest activation, remitters made fewer commission errors (24%) and had lower activity, and activation was lowest in controls who made the fewest errors (13%).
These preliminary results suggest that developmental changes in ADHD symptomatology are associated with functional changes in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activity.
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ABSTRACT: Background Deficient response inhibition in situations involving a trade-off between response execution and response stopping is a hallmark of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). There are two key components of response inhibition; reactive inhibition where one attempts to cancel an ongoing response and prospective inhibition is when one withholds a response pending a signal to stop. Prospective inhibition comes into play prior to the presentation of the stop signal and reactive inhibition follows the presentation of a signal to stop a particular action. The aim of this study is to investigate the neural activity evoked by prospective and reactive inhibition in adolescents with and without ADHD.Methods Twelve adolescents with ADHD and 12 age-matched healthy controls (age range 9–18) were imaged while performing the stop signal task (SST).ResultsReactive inhibition activated right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in both groups. ADHD subjects activated IFG bilaterally. In controls, prospective inhibition invoked preactivation of the same part of right IFG that activated during reactive inhibition. In ADHD subjects, prospective inhibition was associated with deactivation in this region. Controls also deactivated the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during prospective inhibition, whereas ADHD subjects activated the same area.DiscussionThis pattern of activity changes in the same structures, but in opposite directions, was also evident across all phases of the task in various task-specific areas like the superior and middle temporal gyrus and other frontal areas.Conclusion Differences between ADHD and control participants in task-specific and default mode structures (IFG and MPFC) were evident during prospective, but not during reactive inhibition.Brain and Behavior. 06/2014;
- Croatian Medical Journal 04/2014; 55(2):174-6. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions.Brain 06/2014; · 10.23 Impact Factor