Fat distribution in HIV-infected women in the United States: DEXA substudy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.
ABSTRACT Surveys in HIV-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) consistently demonstrate decreased levels of peripheral fat, with variable effects on central fat. This substudy of the Women's Interagency HIV Study was undertaken to examine fat distribution in a well-characterized cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the United States. Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning with standardized regional analysis was performed in 271 nonpregnant women. Results were compared in the following groups: HIV negative (n = 88); and HIV positive on no ART (n = 70), highly active ART with a protease inhibitor (HAART/PI) (n = 48), or non-PI-containing HAART (n = 53). The groups were well matched with respect to race, with the majority of women coming from racial/ethnic minorities. The majority of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were overweight (body mass index [BMI] >/=25 kg/m), and many were obese (BMI >30 kg/m). Leg fat in both groups on HAART was significantly lower than in HIV-negative women (P = 0.01 and <0.0001 vs. HIV-negative for HAART/PI and HAART/no PI, respectively), whereas trunk fat was lower only in HAART/no PI (P = 0.0004 vs. HIV-negative). Thus, consistent with reports in men, lower levels of peripheral (leg) fat are seen in HIV-infected women on HAART, despite the high prevalence of obesity in this population.
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ABSTRACT: In view of the rising prevalence of an overweight body mass among patients living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), clinicians must now be mindful of possible adverse outcomes resulting from the co-occurrence. The present study was designed to examine the additive and interactive effects of HIV/AIDS and an excess body mass, as well as the additional contributions of substance abuse or dependence. The dependent variable was brain function estimated by the measurement of P300 electroencephalographic potentials. P300 potentials were recorded during a task designed to elicit subcomponents with frontal (P300a) and both frontal and non-frontal (P300b) generators. Analyses revealed greater frontal P300a latencies among the 102 HIV-1 seropositive versus the 68 seronegative participants. In addition, frontal P300a latency was further increased by a synergistic interaction of HIV-1 serostatus with a body mass index (BMI)≥25 kg/m². A history of substance abuse/dependence did not alter these changes. However, it did combine with HIV/AIDS to produce a smaller P300a amplitude than was seen in participants with neither disorder. The findings suggest that white matter changes accompanying an excess BMI may exacerbate those that attend HIV/AIDS and thereby slow down frontal brain function. Substance abuse, likewise, interacts with HIV/AIDS but may impair frontal brain function via a different mechanism.Psychiatry Research 01/2011; 185(1-2):232-7. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Body fat changes are of concern to HIV-seropositive adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Studies examining the association of body fat changes and quality of life (QOL) in the setting of HIV infection have been conducted predominately in men. We examined the relationship of self-perceived body fat change with QOL among 1671 HAART-using HIV-seropositive women (mean age 40±8 years; 54% African-American, 24% reporting <95% HAART adherence) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Self-perception of any fat loss was associated with lower overall QOL. Report of any peripheral fat loss was strongly associated with nearly all QOL domains (i.e., physical functioning, role functioning, energy/fatigue, social functioning, pain, emotional well-being, health perception, and perceived health index) except cognitive functioning, whereas report of any central fat loss was significantly associated with lower social and cognitive functioning. Report of any central fat gain was associated with lower overall QOL, but only physical functioning, energy/fatigue, and cognitive functioning were significantly affected. A significant association of report of any peripheral fat gain with overall QOL was not observed, however, peripheral fat gain was significantly associated with lower physical functioning and pain. We found that any report of fat loss, especially in peripheral body sites was associated with lower QOL, as was any report of central fat gain. Ultimately health providers and patients need to be informed of these associations so as to better support HIV-seropositive women who live with these effects.AIDS Care 05/2013; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the relationship of adipose tissue mass to systemic inflammation is not well described in this population. We hypothesized that serum adipokine levels (i.e., hormones produced by adipocytes) are a superior predictor of CRP compared to anthropometric or radiographic measures of body composition in patients on effective, stable ART. We evaluated the relationship of serum leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, BMI, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements with serum highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP) in a cross-sectional cohort of 106 predominantly virologically suppressed, HIV-infected adults on ART for ≥24 weeks using multivariable linear regression and formal criteria to assess statistical mediation. Median BMI, hsCRP, and leptin values were 25.2 kg/m(2), 3.0 mg/liter, and 3.8 ng/ml, respectively. BMI and DEXA limb fat, body fat, and trunk fat measurements were significantly associated with both serum leptin and hsCRP levels (all p≤0.02). Leptin was also associated with hsCRP (p<0.01). The regression coefficient for the effect of BMI or DEXA measurements on hsCRP was reduced, and the relationship was no longer statistically significant, after adjusting for leptin, indicating leptin functioned as a mediating variable within these relationships. Adiponectin and resistin levels did not demonstrate similar effects. Serum leptin was a superior predictor of hsCRP compared to BMI and DEXA body fat measurements, which may reflect alterations in body composition in treated HIV infection and the important contribution of adipose tissue to inflammation in this population.AIDS research and human retroviruses 12/2011; 28(6):552-7. · 2.18 Impact Factor