Fat distribution in HIV-infected women in the United States: DEXA substudy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.
ABSTRACT Surveys in HIV-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) consistently demonstrate decreased levels of peripheral fat, with variable effects on central fat. This substudy of the Women's Interagency HIV Study was undertaken to examine fat distribution in a well-characterized cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the United States. Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning with standardized regional analysis was performed in 271 nonpregnant women. Results were compared in the following groups: HIV negative (n = 88); and HIV positive on no ART (n = 70), highly active ART with a protease inhibitor (HAART/PI) (n = 48), or non-PI-containing HAART (n = 53). The groups were well matched with respect to race, with the majority of women coming from racial/ethnic minorities. The majority of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were overweight (body mass index [BMI] >/=25 kg/m), and many were obese (BMI >30 kg/m). Leg fat in both groups on HAART was significantly lower than in HIV-negative women (P = 0.01 and <0.0001 vs. HIV-negative for HAART/PI and HAART/no PI, respectively), whereas trunk fat was lower only in HAART/no PI (P = 0.0004 vs. HIV-negative). Thus, consistent with reports in men, lower levels of peripheral (leg) fat are seen in HIV-infected women on HAART, despite the high prevalence of obesity in this population.
- Value in Health 01/2006; 9(6). · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PurposeTo characterize intra-abdominal adipose tissue changes in HIV patients with clinical lipodystrophy using a reproducible imaging technique.Materials and methods89 HIV patients with clinical lipodystrophy were included. A single axial T1W image was acquired at the mid L4 vertebral level. Two radiologists measured subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues using a semi-automated method. Measurements were compared to a matched population (race, sex, age and BMI).ResultsMeasurements of abdominal adipose tissue on MRI are reproducible. Three clinical types of lipodystrophy are described in males with increased visceral (VAT) and reduced subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues compared to control subjects. Two clinical types of lipodystrophy are described in females with increased visceral (VAT) and unchanged subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues.ConclusionMRI with comparison between HIV patients and normal control subjects is a reproducible method to characterize adipose tissue changes of lipodystrophy and evaluate its severity.Evaluation of a adipose tissue distribution in a large control population would be helpful to the study of metabolic disorders.Journal de Radiologie. 01/2007; 88:947-956.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest that indicators of central adiposity such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference may be altered by HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment, or both. Waist and hip circumference and body mass index (BMI) were measured among participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study semiannually from 1999 to 2004. Generalized linear models evaluated longitudinal patterns of these measures and associations with demographic and clinical characteristics. WHR was significantly larger, whereas BMI and waist and hip circumference were significantly smaller at almost all 11 semiannual visits among 942 HIV-infected women compared with 266 HIV-uninfected women. Among HIV-uninfected women, mean waist and hip circumference and BMI increased over the 5-year study period (waist: +4.1 cm or 4.4%, hip: +3.76 cm or 3.5%, and BMI +2.43 kg/m2 or 8.2%), whereas WHR remained stable. Among the HIV-infected women, waist and hip circumference, BMI, and WHR did not significantly change. Independent predictors of smaller BMI among HIV-infected women included white race, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, current smoking, higher viral load, and lower CD4 cell count. Independent predictors of larger WHR among HIV-infected women included age, white and other non-African American race, higher CD4 cell count, and protease inhibitor (PI) use. Use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen was not an independent predictor of BMI or WHR. HIV-infected women had higher WHRs compared with HIV-uninfected women, despite lower BMIs and waist and hip measurements. BMI and waist and hip circumference increased over 5 years among the HIV-uninfected women but remained stable in the HIV-infected women. Among HIV-infected women, PI use was associated with a larger WHR, although HAART use itself was not appreciably associated with BMI or WHR.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2008; 47(3):312-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor