Binding of antitumor antibiotic daunomycin to histones in chromatin and in solution.
ABSTRACT Daunomycin is an anticancer drug that is well-known to interact with DNA in chromatin. Using a compositionally defined chicken erythrocyte chromatin fraction, we have obtained conclusive evidence that the drug is also able to interact with chromatin-bound linker histones without any noticeable binding to core histones. The drug can interact in an equal fashion with both histone H1 and H5 and to a greater extent with core histones H3/H4 and H2A/H2B as free proteins in solution. Thus, the binding of daunomycin to linker histones in the chromatin fiber is most likely due to the well-known higher accessibility of these histones to the surrounding environment of the fiber. Binding of daunomycin to linker histones appears to primarily involve the trypsin-resistant (winged-helix) domain of these proteins. The studies described here reveal the occurrence of a previously undisclosed mechanism for the antitumor activity of anthracycline drugs at the chromatin level.
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ABSTRACT: Chromatin released from dead host cells during in vitro production of IgG monoclonal antibodies exists mostly in complex hetero-aggregates consisting of nucleosomal arrays (DNA+histone proteins), non-histone proteins, and aberrant forms of IgG. They bind immobilized protein A more aggressively than IgG, through their nucleosomal histone components, and hinder access of IgG to Fc-specific binding sites, thereby reducing dynamic binding capacity. The majority of host cell contaminants in eluted IgG are leachates from chromatin hetero-aggregates that remain bound to protein A. Formation of turbidity in eluted IgG during pH titration is caused by neutral-pH insolubility of chromatin hetero-aggregates. NaOH is required at 500mM to remove accumulated chromatin. A chromatin-directed clarification method removed 99% of histones, 90% of non-histone proteins, achieved a 6 log reduction of DNA, 4 log reduction of lipid-enveloped virus, and 5 log reduction of non-enveloped retrovirus, while conserving 98% of the native IgG. This suspended most of performance compromises imposed on protein A. IgG binding capacity increased ∼20%. Host protein contamination was reduced about 100-fold compared to protein A loaded with harvest clarified by centrifugation and microfiltration. Aggregates were reduced to less than 0.05%. Turbidity of eluted IgG upon pH neutralization was nearly eliminated. Column cleaning was facilitated by minimizing the accumulation of chromatin.Journal of Chromatography A 03/2014; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Graphical abstract Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideFEBS Open Bio. 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Chromatin has been introduced as a main target for most anticancer drugs. Etoposide is known as a topoisomerase II inhibitor, but its effect on chromatin components is unknown. This report, for the first time, describes the effect of etoposide on DNA, histones and DNA-histones complex in the structure of nucleosomes employing thermal denaturation, fluorescence, UV absorbance and circular dichroism spectroscopy techniques. The results showed that the binding of etoposide decreased UV absorbance and fluorescence emission intensity, altered secondary structure of chromatin and hypochromicity was occurred in thermal denaturation profiles. The drug exhibited higher affinity to chromatin compared to DNA. Quenching of drug chromophores with tyrosine residues of histones indicated that globular domain of histones is the site of etoposide binding. Moreover, the binding of etoposide to histones altered their secondary structure accompanied with hypochromicity revealing compaction of histones in the presence of the drug. From the results it is concludes that apart from topoisomerase II, chromatin components especially its protein moiety can be introduced as a new site of etoposide binding and histone proteins especially H1 play a fundamental role in this process and anticancer activity of etoposide.Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 06/2014; 133C:292-299. · 1.98 Impact Factor