Binding of antitumor antibiotic daunomycin to histones in chromatin and in solution
ABSTRACT Daunomycin is an anticancer drug that is well-known to interact with DNA in chromatin. Using a compositionally defined chicken erythrocyte chromatin fraction, we have obtained conclusive evidence that the drug is also able to interact with chromatin-bound linker histones without any noticeable binding to core histones. The drug can interact in an equal fashion with both histone H1 and H5 and to a greater extent with core histones H3/H4 and H2A/H2B as free proteins in solution. Thus, the binding of daunomycin to linker histones in the chromatin fiber is most likely due to the well-known higher accessibility of these histones to the surrounding environment of the fiber. Binding of daunomycin to linker histones appears to primarily involve the trypsin-resistant (winged-helix) domain of these proteins. The studies described here reveal the occurrence of a previously undisclosed mechanism for the antitumor activity of anthracycline drugs at the chromatin level.
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ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic DNA is compacted in the form of chromatin, in a complex with histones and other nonhistone proteins. The intimate association of DNA and histones in chromatin raises the possibility that DNA-interactive small molecules may bind to chromatin-associated proteins such as histones. Employing biophysical and biochemical techniques we have characterized the interaction of a classical intercalator, ethidium bromide (EB) and its structural analogue propidium iodide (PI) with hierarchical genomic components: long chromatin, chromatosome, core octamer and chromosomal DNA. Our studies show that EB and PI affect both chromatin structure and function, inducing chromatin compaction and disruption of the integrity of the chromatosome. Calorimetric studies and fluorescence measurements of the ligands demonstrated and characterized the association of these ligands with core histones and the intact octamer in absence of DNA. The ligands affect acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 5 and lysine 8 ex vivo. PI alters the post-translational modifications to a greater extent than EB. This is the first report showing the dual binding (chromosomal DNA and core histones) property of a classical intercalator, EB, and its longer analogue, PI, in the context of chromatin. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.01/2014; 4. DOI:10.1016/j.fob.2014.02.006
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ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded polyglutamine cytosine-adenine-guanine repeat in the gene coding for the protein huntingtin. Despite great progress over the past two decades since the identification of the gene mutation, a direct causative pathway from the HD gene mutation to neuronal dysfunction and death has not yet been established. One important advance in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of this disease has been the development of experimental mouse models that replicate many of the clinical, neuropathological, and molecular events in HD patients. These murine models have played a critical role in providing accurate and experimentally accessible systems to study multiple features of disease pathogenesis and to test potential therapeutic strategies. A better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of disease and how they interrelate has become important in identifying a treatment for HD and in the design of human clinical trials. In this chapter, we review the current state of HD mouse models and their successes in elucidating disease pathogenesis and in developing pharmacotherapies. There is no clinically proven treatment for HD that can halt or ameliorate the inexorable disease progression. As such, a guide to assessing studies in mouse models and salient issues related to translation from mice to humans are included.International Review of Neurobiology 01/2011; 98:419-81. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-381328-2.00016-X · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adriamycin is a clinically used antitumor anthracycline antibiotic. Histone H1 is a target for the activity of anthracycline drug at the chromatin level. A new optical biosensor technique based on the resonant mirror was used to characterize interaction of adriamycin with H1, and the binding constant was obtained. By the analysis of fluorescence spectrum and fluorescence intensity, it was shown that adriamycin can quench the intrinsic fluorescence of tyrosine in H1 through a static quenching procedure. The binding constants of adriamycin with H1 were determined at different temperatures based on the fluorescence quenching results. The binding sites were obtained, and the binding forces were suggested to be mainly hydrophobic. The interaction of adriamycin and H1 in the presence of denaturant or salt was studied. The effect of Fe on the binding constant was also investigated by optical biosensor and fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, the steady‐state Stern–Volmer collisional quenching study of Tyr72 with acrylamide indicated that the association between adriamycin and H1 did not change molecular conformation of H1.Analytical Letters 10/2005; 38(13):2151-2164. · 0.98 Impact Factor