The familial predisposition toward tearing the anterior cruciate ligament: a case control study.

Fowler Kennedy Sport Medicine Clinic, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
The American Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.36). 02/2005; 33(1):23-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A study of 171 surgical cases and 171 matched controls was conducted to investigate whether a familial predisposition toward tearing the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee exists.
Case control study; Level of evidence, 3.
Patients who were diagnosed with an anterior cruciate ligament tear were matched by age (within 5 years), gender, and primary sport to subjects without an anterior cruciate ligament tear. All 342 subjects completed a questionnaire detailing their family history of anterior cruciate ligament tears.
When controlling for subject age and number of relatives, participants with an anterior cruciate ligament tear were twice as likely to have a relative (first, second, or third degree) with an anterior cruciate ligament tear compared to participants without an anterior cruciate ligament tear (adjusted odds ratio = 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.33). When the analysis was limited to include only first-degree relatives, participants with an anterior cruciate ligament tear were slightly greater than twice as likely to have a first-degree relative with an anterior cruciate ligament tear compared to participants without an anterior cruciate ligament tear (adjusted odds ratio = 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-4.00).
Findings are consistent with a familial predisposition toward tearing the anterior cruciate ligament.
Future research should concentrate on identifying the potentially modifiable risk factors that may be passed through families and developing strategies for the prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

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    • "In addition, each participant completed personal details, medical history, personal ligament and tendon injury history, as well as a sports participation questionnaire. Sports participation was categorized into contact sports, non-contact jumping sports, noncontact non-jumping sports and skiing sports, as defined previously (Flynn et al., 2005), with slight modification (Posthumus et al., 2009b, 2009c). The detailed analysis on the sports participation data, as well as the family history of musculo-skeletal injury among the cases and controls has been published previously (Posthumus et al., 2009b, c). "
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 08/2012; 22(4):523-533. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Many studies have suggested that genetic elements should be considered as an intrinsic risk factor for ACL rupture. It was previously shown that individuals who had blood relative (family) history of ACL rupture exhibited 2-fold higher risk for ACL rupture (Flynn et al., 2005). Although no specific genes have been S. Malila et al. 4160 identified, a genetic component may play a part in ACL ruptures. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are considered to be the most severe joint injury in sports. However, the precise etiologies of ACL injuries are not fully understood. Recently, the gene encoding the matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3, stromelysin-1) was shown to be associated with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. The 5A/6A polymorphism in the promoter of the MMP-3 gene affects the regulation of MMP-3 gene expression. We examined the association between polymorphism within -1612 of the MMP-3 gene and ACL rupture in an independent population. Eighty-six participants between 20 and 40 years of age with surgically diagnosed ACL ruptures and 100 healthy controls between 18 and 28 years of age without history of ligament or tendon injuries were recruited for the study. All participants were genotyped for the MMP-3 polymorphism (-1612 5A/6A). Statistical analyses of genotype frequencies between patients and healthy controls were performed by the chi-square test. A significant difference was found between ACL rupture subgroups in terms of genotype association (5A+ (5A/5A, 5A/6A): 37.5% in contact sports vs 20% in non-contact sports; P = 0.02). In allelic association, there were significant differences (6A: 81.2% in contact sports vs 89.1% in non-contact sports, 5A: 18.8% in contact sports vs 10.9% in non-contact sports, P = 0.01). The 5A+ genotype of MMP-3 was represented in ACL ruptures in contact sport participants. We propose that this sequence variant is a specific genetic element that should be included in a multifactorial model to understand the etiologies and risk factors for ACL rupture.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 10/2011; 10(4):4158-65. DOI:10.4238/2011.October.31.1 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current massive concurrence of girls in sport activities, exercise and physical conditioning, it has been accompanied by a growing increase of knee injuries, especially, rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Environmental, anatomical, hormonal and neuromuscular risk factors have been proposed like explanation to this phenomenon. This article, will be focus on the main characteristics and mechanisms of action of the neuromuscular risk factors due to the possible modification of them from the point of view of training, proposing action lines that allow structure design programs of training guided to diminish the appearance of these girls lesions.
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