Sensory and gastrointestinal satiety effects of capsaicin on food intake

Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
International Journal of Obesity (Impact Factor: 5). 07/2005; 29(6):682-8. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802862
Source: PubMed


Decreased appetite and increased energy expenditure after oral consumption of red pepper has been shown.
The aim of the present study was to assess the relative oral and gastrointestinal contribution to capsaicin-induced satiety and its effects on food intake or macronutrient selection.
For 24 subjects (12 men and 12 women; age: 35+/-10 y; BMI: 25.0+/-2.4 kg/m2; range 20-30), 16 h food intake was assessed four times during 2 consecutive days by offering macronutrient-specific buffets and boxes with snacks, in our laboratory restaurant. At 30 min before each meal, 0.9 g red pepper (0.25% capsaicin; 80,000 Scoville Thermal Units) or a placebo was offered in either tomato juice or in two capsules that were swallowed with tomato juice. Hunger and satiety were recorded using Visual Analogue Scales.
Average daily energy intake in the placebo condition was 11.5+/-1.0 MJ/d for the men and 9.4+/-0.8 MJ/d for the women. After capsaicin capsules, energy intake was 10.4+/-0.6 and 8.3+/-0.5 MJ/d (P<0.01); after capsaicin in tomato juice, it was 9.9+/-0.7 and 7.9+/-0.5 MJ/d, respectively (compared to placebo: P<0.001; compared to capsaicin in capsules: P<0.05). En % from carbohydrate/protein/fat (C/P/F): changed from 46+/-3/15+/-1/39+/-2 to 52+/-4/15+/-1/33+/-2 en% (P<0.01) in the men, and from 48+/-4/14+/-2/38+/-3 to 42+/-4/14+/-2/32+/-3 en% (P<0.01) in the women, in both capsaicin conditions. Satiety (area under the curve) increased from 689 to 757 mmh in the men and from 712 to 806 mmh in the women, both (P<0.01). Only in the oral exposure condition was the reduction in energy intake and the increase in satiety related to perceived spiciness.
In the short term, both oral and gastrointestinal exposure to capsaicin increased satiety and reduced energy and fat intake; the stronger reduction with oral exposure suggests a sensory effect of capsaicin.

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    • "Physiologically, foods such as those containing capsaicin have been found to influence metabolism or homeostasis, sometimes resulting in clinically important effects on animal gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems [7] [19]. Human studies have demonstrated that red pepper consumption decreases appetite while it increases satiety [26], as well as energy expenditure [28], which is thought to be mediated by increased activity of sympathetic nervous system by capsaicin [25]. Individual experience also influences the preference for spicy foods. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between eating behavior of spicy food and endogenous testosterone. Participants included 114 males between the ages of 18 and 44 recruited from the community. They were asked to indicate their preferences regarding spicy food and were then asked to season a sample of mashed potatoes with pepper sauce and salt (control substance) prior to evaluating the spiciness of the meal. A positive correlation was observed between endogenous salivary testosterone and the quantity of hot sauce individuals voluntarily and spontaneously consumed with a meal served as part of a laboratory task. In contrast, significant correlations were not observed between testosterone and behavioral preference for salty foods. This study suggests that behavioral preference for spicy food among men is related to endogenous testosterone levels.
    Physiology & Behavior 12/2015; 139:375-377. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.11.061 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    • "Of these, in addition to EGCG, capsaicin has been investigated most extensively as an antioxidant agent [25]. The use of capsaicin has therefore been investigated as a treatment for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases, as well as for its thermogenic activity [26–30] and its satiating effect [31, 32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, 8 week trial assessed the efficacy on metabolic changes produced by a consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients (epigallocatechin gallate, capsaicins, piperine and L-carnitine) versus a placebo, as part of a therapeutic 'lifestyle change' diet, in 86 overweight subjects. Forty-one patients (2/14 F/M; age 43.7 ± 8.5; BMI 30.3 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the supplemented group and 45 (29/16; age 40.7 ± 10.2; BMI 30.0 ± 2.7) to the control group. We observed that consumption of the dietary supplement was associated with a significantly greater decrease in insulin resistance, assessed by homostasis model assessment (p < 0.001), leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.04), respiratory quotient (p < 0.008). LDL-cholesterol levels (p < 0.01). Moreover, statistically significant differences were recorded between the two groups in relation to urinary norepinephrine levels (p < 0.001). Leptin, ghrelin, C-reactive protein decreased and resting energy expenditure increased significantly in the supplemented group (p < 0.05, 0.03, 0.02 and 0,02 respectively), but not in the placebo group; adiponectin decreased significantly in the placebo group (0.001) but not in the supplemented group, although no statistical significance between the groups was elicited. BMI, fat mass (assessed by DXA) and vascular endothelial growth factor significantly decreased, whilst the resting energy expenditure/free fat mass significantly increased in both groups. In general, a greater change was recorded in the supplemented group compared to the placebo, although no statistically significant difference between the two groups was recorded. These results suggest that the combination of bioactive food ingredients studied might be useful for the treatment of obesity-related inflammatory metabolic dysfunctions.
    Endocrine 12/2012; 44(2). DOI:10.1007/s12020-012-9863-0 · 3.88 Impact Factor

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