Lactococcus lactis uses MscL as its principal mechanosensitive channel
ABSTRACT The functions of the mechanosensitive channels from Lactococcus lactis were determined by biochemical, physiological, and electrophysiological methods. Patch-clamp studies showed that the genes yncB and mscL encode MscS and MscL-like channels, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli or if the gene products were purified and reconstituted in proteoliposomes. However, unless yncB was expressed in trans, wild type membranes of L. lactis displayed only MscL activity. Membranes prepared from an mscL disruption mutant did not show any mechanosensitive channel activity, irrespective of whether the cells had been grown on low or high osmolarity medium. In osmotic downshift assays, wild type cells survived and retained 20% of the glycine betaine internalized under external high salt conditions. On the other hand, the mscL disruption mutant retained 40% of internalized glycine betaine and was significantly compromised in its survival upon osmotic downshifts. The data strongly suggest that L. lactis uses MscL as the main mechanosensitive solute release system to protect the cells under conditions of osmotic downshift.
SourceAvailable from: Annie Frelet-BarrandMembrane Proteins Production for Structural Analysis, Edited by I Mus-Vuteau, 07/2014: chapter Chapter 5: pages 107-132; Springer.
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial mechanosensitive channels sense the changes in lateral tension in the bilayer of the cytoplasmic membrane generated by rapid water flow into the cell. Two major structural families are found widely distributed across bacteria and archaea: MscL and MscS. Our understanding of the mechanisms of gating has advanced rapidly through genetic analysis, structural biology and electrophysiology. It is only recently that the analysis of the physiological roles of the channels has kept pace with mechanistic studies. Recent advances have increased our understanding of the role of the channels in preventing structural perturbation during osmotic transitions and its relationship to water flow across the membrane. It is to these recent developments that this review is dedicated.Current opinion in microbiology 03/2014; 18C:16-22. DOI:10.1016/j.mib.2014.01.005 · 7.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the best-studied mechanosensitive channels is the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL). MscL senses tension in the membrane evoked by an osmotic down shock and directly couples it to large conformational changes leading to the opening of the channel. Spectroscopic techniques offer unique possibilities to monitor these conformational changes if it were possible to generate tension in the lipid bilayer, the native environment of MscL, during the measurements. To this end, asymmetric insertion of l-α-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into the lipid bilayer has been effective; however, how LPC activates MscL is not fully understood. Here, the effects of LPC on tension-sensitive mutants of a bacterial MscL and on MscL homologs with different tension sensitivities are reported, leading to the conclusion that the mode of action of LPC is different from that of applied tension. Our results imply that LPC shifts the free energy of gating by interfering with MscL-membrane coupling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the fine-tuned addition of LPC can be used for controlled activation of MscL in spectroscopic studies.-Mukherjee, N., Jose, M. D., Birkner, J. P., Walko, M., Ingólfsson, H. I., Dimitrova, A., Arnarez, C., Marrink, S. J., Koçer, A. The activation mode of the mechanosensitive ion channel, MscL, by lysophosphatidylcholine differs from tension-induced gating.The FASEB Journal 06/2014; fj.14-251579. DOI:10.1096/fj.14-251579 · 5.48 Impact Factor