Novel function for receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) in post-endocytic receptor trafficking.
ABSTRACT RAMPs (1-3) are single transmembrane accessory proteins crucial for plasma membrane expression, which also determine receptor phenotype of various G-protein-coupled receptors. For example, adrenomedullin receptors are comprised of RAMP2 or RAMP3 (AM1R and AM2R, respectively) and calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), while a CRLR heterodimer with RAMP1 yields a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor. The major aim of this study was to determine the role of RAMPs in receptor trafficking. We hypothesized that a PDZ type I domain present in the C terminus of RAMP3, but not in RAMP1 or RAMP2, leads to protein-protein interactions that determine receptor trafficking. Employing adenylate cyclase assays, radioligand binding, and immunofluorescence microscopy, we observed that in HEK293 cells the CRLR-RAMP complex undergoes agonist-stimulated desensitization and internalization and fails to resensitize (i.e. degradation of the receptor complex). Co-expression of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) with the CRLR-RAMP3 complex, but not CRLR-RAMP1 or CRLR-RAMP2 complex, altered receptor trafficking to a recycling pathway. Mutational analysis of RAMP3, by deletion and point mutations, indicated that the PDZ motif of RAMP3 interacts with NSF to cause the change in trafficking. The role of RAMP3 and NSF in AM2R recycling was confirmed in rat mesangial cells, where RNA interference with RAMP3 and pharmacological inhibition of NSF both resulted in a lack of receptor resensitization/recycling after agonist-stimulated desensitization. These findings provide the first functional difference between the AM1R and AM2R at the level of post-endocytic receptor trafficking. These results indicate a novel function for RAMP3 in the post-endocytic sorting of the AM-R and suggest a broader regulatory role for RAMPs in receptor trafficking.
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ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important cell signaling mediators, involved in essential physiological processes. GPCRs respond to a wide variety of ligands from light to large macromolecules, including hormones and small peptides. Unfortunately, mutations and dysregulation of GPCRs that induce a loss of function or alter expression can lead to disorders that are sometimes lethal. Therefore, the expression, trafficking, signaling and desensitization of GPCRs must be tightly regulated by different cellular systems to prevent disease. Although there is substantial knowledge regarding the mechanisms that regulate the desensitization and down-regulation of GPCRs, less is known about the mechanisms that regulate the trafficking and cell-surface expression of newly synthesized GPCRs. More recently, there is accumulating evidence that suggests certain GPCRs are able to interact with specific proteins that can completely change their fate and function. These interactions add on another level of regulation and flexibility between different tissue/cell-types. Here, we review some of the main interacting proteins of GPCRs. A greater understanding of the mechanisms regulating their interactions may lead to the discovery of new drug targets for therapy.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 15(1):1112-1142. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullins (AM) is a multifaceted distinct subfamily of peptides that belongs to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) superfamily. These peptides exert their functional activities via associations of calcitonin receptor-like receptors (CLRs) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) RAMP2 and RAMP3. Recent studies established that RAMPs and CLRs can modify biochemical properties such as trafficking and glycosylation of each other. However there is very little or no understanding regarding how RAMP or CLR influence ligand-induced events of AM-receptor complex. In this study, using pufferfish homologs of CLR (mfCLR1–3) and RAMP (mfRAMP2 and mfRAMP3), we revealed that all combinations of CLR and RAMP quickly underwent ligand-induced internalization; however, their recycling rates were different as follows: mfCLR1–mfRAMP3 > mfCLR2–mfRAMP3 > mfCLR3–mfRAMP3. Functional receptor assay confirmed that the recycled receptors were resensitized on the plasma membrane. In contrast, a negligible amount of mfCLR1–mfRAMP2 was recycled and reconstituted. Immunocytochemistry results indicated that the lower recovery rate of mfCLR3–mfRAMP3 and mfCLR1–mfRAMP2 was correlated with higher proportion of lysosomal localization of these receptor complexes compared to the other combinations. Collectively our results indicate, for the first time, that the ligand-induced internalization, recycling, and reconstitution properties of RAMP–CLR receptor complexes depend on the receptor-complex as a whole, and not on individual CLR or RAMP alone.General and Comparative Endocrinology 01/2014; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR) plays a role in calcium homeostasis by sensing minute changes in serum Ca(2+) and modulating secretion of calciotropic hormones. It has been shown in transfected cells that accessory proteins known as Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs), specifically RAMPs 1 and 3, are required for cell-surface trafficking of the CaSR. These effects have only been demonstrated in transfected cells, so their physiological relevance is unclear. Here we explored CaSR/RAMP interactions in detail, and showed that in thyroid human carcinoma cells, RAMP1 is required for trafficking of the CaSR. Furthermore, we show that normal RAMP1 function is required for intracellular responses to ligands. Specifically, to confirm earlier studies with tagged constructs, and to provide the additional benefit of quantitative stoichiometric analysis, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to show equal abilities of RAMP1 and 3 to chaperone CaSR to the cell surface, though RAMP3 interacted more efficiently with the receptor. Furthermore, a higher fraction of RAMP3 than RAMP1 was observed in CaSR-complexes on the cell-surface, suggesting different ratios of RAMPs to CaSR. In order to determine relevance of these findings in an endogenous expression system we assessed the effect of RAMP1 siRNA knock-down in medullary thyroid carcinoma TT cells, (which express RAMP1, but not RAMP3 constitutively) and measured a significant 50% attenuation of signalling in response to CaSR ligands Cinacalcet and neomycin. Blockade of RAMP1 using specific antibodies induced a concentration-dependent reduction in CaSR-mediated signalling in response to Cinacalcet in TT cells, suggesting a novel functional role for RAMP1 in regulation of CaSR signalling in addition to its known role in receptor trafficking. These data provide evidence that RAMPs traffic the CaSR as higher-level oligomers and play a role in CaSR signalling even after cell surface localisation has occurred.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85237. · 3.73 Impact Factor