Sac enlargement without endoleak: when and how to convert and technical considerations.
ABSTRACT The primary goal of endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is prevention of death from rupture. Even in the absence of an endoleak, the AAA may continue to enlarge. The pathogenesis of this phenomenon remains unclear. Therefore, surveillance after endovascular AAA treatment must include regular evaluation of aneurysm size, or even better, aneurysm volume. Aneurysm sac enlargement without an endoleak is not a benign condition. Recurrent or persistent pressurization of the AAA sac will eventually result in rupture. Besides that, continued expansion of the AAA sac can result in dilatation of the infrarenal neck and/or iliac arteries, which may threaten the integrity of proximal and distal anastomotic seals. Many centers will take a pragmatic approach in case of endotension and a growing AAA, and convert to open surgery with removal of the endograft and placement of a regular vascular graft. Direct puncture and pharmacological intervention in the cause of sac enlargement by local instillation seems logical, but has failed so far. The third option for aneurysm sac enlargement without an endoleak is laparoscopic or open fenestration of the aneurysm. Until permanent solutions for endotension and endoleaks are found, endovascular aneurysm repair will remain an imperfect long-term treatment and continued follow-up will be mandatory.
Article: Clinical practice guidelines for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: written by the Standards of Practice Committee for the Society of Interventional Radiology and endorsed by the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe and the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association.Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 09/2010; 21(11):1632-55. · 1.81 Impact Factor
Article: Five-year report of a multicenter controlled clinical trial of open versus endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Compare long-term results of endovascular treatment and standard open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in a multicenter, concurrent-controlled trial. 334 subjects were treated with standard open repair (control, n = 99) or the original EXCLUDER Bifurcated Endoprosthesis (test, n = 235). Five-year clinical evaluations and corelab radiographic results are analyzed. Overall and aneurysm-related survival are similar. There have been ten open conversions, most frequently for enlarging sacs without endoleak. Two patients died after conversion. Including reinterventions and complications of reinterventions as adverse events, there is significant, persistent long-term reduction in major adverse events. At 5 years, corelab reported 0% limb narrowing, 0% trunk migration, 0% component (contralateral leg, aortic extender, and iliac extender) migration, 0% fracture, endoleak in 3% (2 type II/68), and aneurysm growth (>5 mm compared to baseline) in 38% (30/78) of the test group. There are no aneurysm ruptures in either test or control group. After 5 years follow-up, endovascular repair is a safer and effective treatment compared with open surgical repair for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Major adverse events are less frequent with the endograft despite the need for late reinterventions. Aneurysm expansion is observed in nearly two-fifths of patients but is not associated with endoleak or aneurysm rupture. Multicenter clinical trials are evaluating a newer version of this device designed to avoid this high rate of sac expansion.Journal of Vascular Surgery 05/2007; 45(5):885-90. · 3.21 Impact Factor