Pharmacokinetics of oritavancin in plasma and skin blister fluid following administration of a 200-milligram dose for 3 days or a single 800-milligram dose.

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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.45). 02/2005; 49(1):148-52. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.49.1.148-152.2005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Oritavancin is a novel glycopeptide currently being developed for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI), including those caused by multidrug resistant gram-positive pathogens. The disposition of oritavancin in skin structures was investigated using a cantharide-induced blister fluid model. Seventeen healthy male subjects received oritavancin, but only 16 subjects were evaluated after one subject discontinued study drug. Each subject (eight per dose group) received 200 mg of oritavancin once a day for 3 days (group A) or 800 mg as one single dose (group B). Group A plasma samples and exudates from blister fluid were collected on days 3, 4, 7, 9, and 12 and on days 3, 4, 7, and 9, respectively. Group B samples and exudates were collected on days 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 and on days 1, 2, 5, and 7, respectively. Drug concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay and, subsequently, pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Differences between treatment groups in ratios for area under the concentration-time curve for blister fluid and plasma (AUC(blister fluid)/AUC(plasma) ratios) were evaluated using a t test (alpha = 0.05). Mean maximum concentration of drug in plasma or blister fluid was approximately 8-fold and 11-fold higher in plasma than in blister fluid following the 200- or 800-mg doses of oritavancin, respectively. Mean AUC(blister fluid)/AUC(plasma) ratios at 24 h were 0.190 (standard deviation [SD], 0.052) and 0.182 (SD, 0.062) for groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.791). To place these results in a clinical context, mean drug concentrations in blister fluid exceed the oritavancin MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited of Staphylococcus aureus (2 microg/ml) by approximately 2- to 5.5-fold at 12 h and 1.5- to 3-fold at 24 h following administration of both dosing regimens. These results support the potential use of oritavancin for the treatment of cSSSI.

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    ABSTRACT: Oritavancin is a novel glycopeptide antibiotic with concentration-dependent killing of Gram-positive cocci and pharmacokinetics characterized by extensive tissue distribution and a long terminal half-life. Its development was hindered by a 16- to 32-fold underestimation of activity against staphylococci and enterococci because of oritavancin's sticking to vials and tubes. Dose-fractionation studies in animal models suggested the peak concentration was the major index for efficacy. Once-daily intravenous administration of oritavancin was effective in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) endocarditis, penicillin-susceptible and cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis in rabbits, staphylococcal and enterococcal central venous catheter infections in rats, and 24-hour postprophylaxis of inhaled anthrax in mice. Orally administered oritavancin was more effective than vancomycin in Clostridium difficile infection in hamsters. Pharmacodynamics suggested that a single dose of oritavancin at 1200 mg would be efficacious in humans. Simulation of this dose in neutropenic mice was highly effective in methicillin-sensitive S. aureus and MRSA thigh and bacteremia infections and pneumococcal lung infections.
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    ABSTRACT: Oritavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide with in vitro activity against a variety of aerobic Gram-positive pathogens (including drug-resistant forms of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci) and select anaerobic organisms. Available published clinical efficacy and safety studies in humans to date focus primarily in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections. While oritavancin doses in these studies varied, single daily doses of 200 mg (300 mg in patients 100 kg) for 3-7 days have demon- strated efficacy similar to comparators (such as vancomycin followed by cephalexin). The most frequent adverse events reported to date include gastrointestinal complaints, insomnia, dizziness, itching, and rash. Further safety and efficacy data are needed to better define its potential place in therapy.
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