A prospective study on cardiovascular events after acute pulmonary embolism.

Sezione di Medicina Interna e Cardiovascolare, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Università di Perugia, Via Enrico Dal Pozzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy.
European Heart Journal (Impact Factor: 14.1). 02/2005; 26(1):77-83. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the incidence of cardiovascular events in the long-term clinical course of patients with a first episode of symptomatic, objectively confirmed pulmonary embolism.
Three hundred and sixty patients with a first episode of pulmonary embolism were included in a prospective study: 209 with idiopathic pulmonary embolism and 151 with pulmonary embolism associated with transient risk factors. The study outcomes were cardiovascular events (recurrent venous thrombo-embolism, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden otherwise unexplained death), cardiovascular death, and death due to any cause. The median follow-up was 38 months. Sixty-four patients had at least one cardiovascular event (5.5% patient-year). Recurrent venous thrombo-embolism occurred in 45 patients (3.9% patient-year), acute myocardial infarction in 12 patients (1.0% patient-year), stroke in six patients (0.5% patient-year), and sudden otherwise unexplained death in four patients (0.3% patient-year). A cardiovascular event occurred in 47 patients with idiopathic pulmonary embolism (7.5% patient-year) and in 17 patients with pulmonary embolism associated with transient risk factors (3.1% patient-year) (RR 2.0; 95% CI 1.20-3.34; P=0.006). Twenty patients with idiopathic pulmonary embolism (3.2% patient-year) and two patients with pulmonary embolism associated with transient risk factors (0.4% patient-year) presented an arterial cardiovascular event (RR 7.2; 95% CI 1.71-30.45; P=0.001). Thirty-three patients died (9.2%). Cardiovascular mortality and cancer mortality accounted for 42.4 and 21.2% of overall mortality, respectively. Idiopathic pulmonary embolism was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events after adjusting for age.
Cardiovascular events are more common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary embolism than in patients with pulmonary embolism associated with transient risk factors. Cardiovascular events are the major cause of death in patients with idiopathic pulmonary embolism.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The risk stratification score, which includes Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 [doubled], Diabetes, Stroke [doubled]- Vascular disease, Age 65-74, and Sex category [female] (CHA2DS2-VASc), is used to predict stroke in atrial fibrillation. However, whether high CHA2DS2-VASc score carries a higher risk of pulmonary embolism remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between the severity of CHA2DS2-VASc score and the incidence of pulmonary embolism. Methods A total of 73,541 adults with atrial fibrillation diagnosed before January 1, 2012, and no history of pulmonary embolism, were retrospectively identified from the computerized database of the Clalit Health Services, which is the largest not-for-profit health maintenance organization in Israel. The CHA2DS2-VASc score was calculated for each subject at study entry. The cohort was followed for the first occurrence of pulmonary embolism until December 31, 2012 (70,210 person-years). Results Pulmonary embolism developed in 158 subjects, representing an incidence of 225.0 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of pulmonary embolism increased with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score (P < .001). On Cox proportional analysis, CHA2DS2-VASc score was significantly associated with pulmonary embolism (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.32) for a 1-point increase in CHA2DS2-VASc score. The results were similar after adjusting for anticoagulants and antiplatelet use (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14-1.34), and remained unchanged after further adjustment for active malignancy. The predictive values for pulmonary embolism were similar for CHA2DS2-VASc score and the classic risk stratification score which includes Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age >75 years, Diabetes, and Stroke [doubled] (CHADS2); the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.619 (95% CI, 0.579-0.660) and 0.616 (95% CI, 0.575-0.656), respectively. Conclusions CHA2DS2-VASc score is directly associated with the incidence of pulmonary embolism in atrial fibrillation.
    The American journal of medicine 01/2014; 127(1):45–52. · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and serum endocan levels. The study included 46 patients with a diagnosis of PTE and control group (25 healthy individuals). Serum endocan levels in all participants' blood samples were measured. The average age of the individuals was 61.76 ± 16.39 years. There was a significant difference in the serum endocan levels between the patients and those of the control group [321.93 ng/l (111.35-2511.33) and 192.77 ng/l (118.30-309.02), respectively; P < 0.030]. The serum endocan levels in the submassive [469.41 ng/l (258.13-800.54)] and the massive PTE groups [719.18 ng/l (319.84-2511.33)] were statistically higher than those in the control group [192.77 ng/l (118.30-309.02)] (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the serum endocan levels of the nonmassive PTE group [188.57 ng/l (111.35-685.56)] and the submassive PTE group (P < 0.01). The serum endocan levels correlated with the international normalization ratio (INR), right ventricular dilatation (RVD) and SBP (r = 0.418, P = 0.004; r = 0.659, P < 0.001; r = -0.425, P = 0.003, respectively). In conclusion, serum endocan levels can be considered a practicable biomarker to determine the severity of PTEs and follow-up thrombolytic therapy.
    Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis: an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis 02/2014; · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common disease with variable symptoms and high overall mortality. The clinical relevance of the extent of PE is still debatable, and the role of anticoagulation in patients with subsegmental involvement has been contested. Our objective is to describe the clinical details of patients with PE in our hospital and to analyze their prognosis based on the extent of the disease. Retrospective study of 313 patients diagnosed with PE by chest computed tomography (CT) scan at the Hospital Complex of Pontevedra in Spain for six years. Predictors of mortality were determined by multivariate analysis. Women accounted for 56% of patients, and patient median age was 70 years (interquartile range 53-78 years). Subsegmental PE accounted for 7% of all cases; these patients were younger and had lower comorbidity; they reported chest pain more often, performed better in blood gas analysis and none of them had proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Patients with subsegmental PE had a higher survival rate. Factors independently associated with mortality were cancer diagnosis and higher comorbidity. Patients with subsegmental PE clinically differ from those with more proximal PE. Underlying diseases have more influence on the prognosis than the extent of the disease.
    Revista portuguesa de pneumologia 01/2014; · 0.56 Impact Factor