An appendix carcinoid tumor in a patient with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer
ABSTRACT Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors are often associated with other tumors, particularly colon adenocarcinomas; but the association between carcinoid tumors and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome has not yet been explored. We report an unusual case of a 28-year-old woman with HNPCC who underwent surgery for a transverse colon adenocarcinoma in whom an appendix carcinoid tumor was incidentally found. To assess whether the carcinoid tumor displayed the characteristic molecular features of HNPCC tumors, we investigated the expression of mismatch-repair (MMR) proteins and microsatellite instability (MSI) status in both tumors. Both tumors demonstrated normal expression of the MMR proteins hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6, and hPMS2. Interestingly, the adenocarcinoma exhibited an MSI phenotype but the carcinoid tumor did not, indicating that these 2 tumors arose through different molecular pathways.
Journal of gastrointestinal oncology 03/2013; 4(1):95-6. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2012.040
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ABSTRACT: Background Lynch syndrome is a highly penetrant cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. We estimated the risks of primary cancers other than colorectal cancer following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer in mutation carriers. Methods We obtained data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry for 764 carriers of an MMR gene mutation (316 MLH1, 357 MSH2, 49 MSH6, and 42 PMS2), who had a previous diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate their cumulative risk of cancers 10 and 20 years after colorectal cancer. We estimated the age-, sex-, country- and calendar period-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancers following colorectal cancer, compared with the general population. Results Following colorectal cancer, carriers of MMR gene mutations had the following 10-year risk of cancers in other organs: kidney, renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder (2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1% to 3%); small intestine, stomach, and hepatobiliary tract (1%, 95% CI = 0.2% to 2%); prostate (3%, 95% CI = 1% to 5%); endometrium (12%, 95% CI = 8% to 17%); breast (2%, 95% CI = 1% to 4%); and ovary (1%, 95% CI = 0% to 2%). They were at elevated risk compared with the general population: cancers of the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter (SIR = 12.54, 95% CI = 7.97 to 17.94), urinary bladder (SIR = 7.22, 95% CI = 4.08 to 10.99), small intestine (SIR = 72.68, 95% CI = 39.95 to 111.29), stomach (SIR = 5.65, 95% CI = 2.32 to 9.69), and hepatobiliary tract (SIR = 5.94, 95% CI = 1.81 to 10.94) for both sexes; cancer of the prostate (SIR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.23 to 3.01), endometrium (SIR = 40.23, 95% CI = 27.91 to 56.06), breast (SIR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.59), and ovary (SIR = 4.19, 95% CI = 1.28 to 7.97). Conclusion Carriers of MMR gene mutations who have already had a colorectal cancer are at increased risk of a greater range of cancers than the recognized spectrum of Lynch syndrome cancers, including breast and prostate cancers.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 08/2012; 104(18):1363-72. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djs351 · 15.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of cancer susceptibility caused by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Mutation carriers have a substantial burden of increased risks of cancers of the colon, rectum, endometrium and several other organs which generally occur at younger ages than for the general population. The issue of whether breast cancer risk is increased for MMR gene mutation carriers has been debated with evidence for and against this association. METHODS: Using the PUBMED, we identified all relevant studies of breast cancer associated with Lynch syndrome that were published by December 15, 2012. In the review, we included: (i) molecular studies that reported microsatellite instability and/or immunohistochemistry in breast cancer tumors of MMR gene mutation carriers; and (ii) risk studies that investigated risk of breast cancer for confirmed MMR gene mutation carriers or families or clinically and/or pathologically defined Lynch syndrome families. RESULTS: We identified 15 molecular studies and, when combined, observed 62 of 122 (51%; 95% confidence interval, CI 42-60%) breast cancers in MMR gene mutation carriers were MMR-deficient. Of the 21 risk studies identified, 13 did not observe statistical evidence for an association of breast cancer risk with Lynch syndrome while 8 studies found an increased risk of breast cancer ranging from 2 to 18-fold compared with the general population (or non-carriers). There is only one prospective study demonstrating an elevated risk of breast cancer for MMR gene mutation carriers compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio 3.95; 95% CI 1.59-8.13). CONCLUSIONS: Since breast cancer is relatively common disease in the general population, more precise estimate of risk and gene-specific risks will need to utilize large prospective cohort studies with a long follow-up. While current data is inconclusive at a population level, individual tumor testing results suggest that MMR deficiency is involved with breast cancers in some individuals with Lynch syndrome.Breast cancer research: BCR 03/2013; 15(2):R27. DOI:10.1186/bcr3405 · 5.88 Impact Factor