Comparing chemical fingerprints of herbal medicines using modified window target-testing factor analysis.
ABSTRACT A "chromatographic fingerprint" of a herbal medicine is essentially its chromatographic spectrum: a characteristic representation of its chemical components, some of which are pharmacologically active. Since a wide variety of factors, such as the geographical location, the harvest season, and the part used can influence the chemical constituents (and therefore the pharmacological activity) of any particular herbal medicine and its products, these fingerprints provide a way to compare and contrast the compositions of different variants of the same herbal medicine. In particular, it is possible to ascertain whether particular components present in one herbal fingerprint are also present in another fingerprint. In this work we use a novel method-modified window target-testing factor analysis (MWTTFA), based on the use of target factor analysis (TFA), fixed-size moving window evolving factor analysis (FSMWEFA) and a Gaussian shape correction to the chromatographic profiles-to achieve this end. To demostrate the strategy, the fingerprints of samples from garlics produced in different geographical locations were compared, as well as the fingerprints of samples taken from above-ground and below-ground parts of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. The results from these comparisons clearly show that four chemical components present in Hunan common edible garlic are absent in Xingping base garlic, while seven components are present in Xingping base garlic but absent in Hunan common edible garlic. Also, eleven components are present in the sample from the above-ground part of Houttuynia cordata Thunb but not in the sample from the below-ground part, while seven components are present in the sample from the below-ground part of Houttuynia cordata Thunb that are not present in the sample from the above-ground part. These interesting conclusions should be very useful for future pharmacological and clinical research into these herbal medicines, and the novel MWTTFA technique can also be used for quality control purposes.
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ABSTRACT: A total of 25 sugarcane spirit extracts of six different Brazilian woods and oak, commonly used by cooperage industries for aging cachaça, were analyzed for the presence of 14 phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, synapaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, vanillic acid, syringic acid, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, catechin, epicatechin, eugenol, and myricetin) and two coumarins (scopoletin and coumarin) by HPLC-DAD-fluorescence and HPLC-ESI-MSn. Furthermore, an HPLC-DAD chromatographic fingerprint was build-up using chemometric analysis based on the chromatographic elution profiles of the extracts monitored at 280 nm. Major components identified and quantified in Brazilian wood extracts were coumarin, ellagic acid, and catechin, whereas oak extracts shown a major contribution of catechin, vanillic acid, and syringaldehyde. The main difference observed among oak and Brazilian woods remains in the concentration of coumarin, catechin, syringaldehyde, and coniferaldehyde. The chemometric analysis of the quantitative profile of the 14 phenolic compounds and two coumarins in the wood extracts provides a differentiation between the Brazilian wood and oak extracts. The chromatographic fingerprint treated by multivariate analysis revealed significant differences among Brazilian woods themselves and oak, clearly defining six groups of wood extracts: (i) oak extracts, (ii) jatobá extracts, (iii) cabreúva-parda extracts, (iv) amendoim extracts, (v) canela-sassafrás extracts and (vi) pequi extracts.Journal of Separation Science 12/2009; 32(21):3681 - 3691. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Quality control plays a critical role in the process of translating the traditional/alternative medicines into modern evidence-based therapies. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is widely applied to assess the chemical composition of botanical drug products. The chromatographic fingerprints or chemical profiles are currently used as the de facto quality control metric. As a complement to chemical profiles, a biological quality control assessment offers distinct advantages. This study describes a genome-wide biological response fingerprinting (BioReF) approach to define a set of marker genes that define a signature pattern for a specific botanical formulation. These marker genes are chosen on the basis of the levels of the regulated expression and the involvement in the cellular signaling pathways. Subsequently, qRT-PCR technique is used to simultaneously monitor the gene expression of multiple marker genes in an efficient and quantitative manner. This set of marker genes represents the biological responses of human cells to the chemical composition of the botanical drug that could serve as potential quality control of botanical drugs in terms of the consistency of biological activities. We demonstrate the BioReF approach with a well-documented Chinese Medicine formula, designated as ISF-1, traditionally used for the management of post-stroke disorders. A set of nine marker genes were selected to assess the batch-to-batch consistency of the biological effects of ISF-1. This approach provides a potential comprehensive and cost-effective quality control metric of the biological activities of botanical drugs.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 09/2007; 113(1):35-44. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Houttuynia THUNB. (Saururaceae) has been used for dozens of years in China for the treatment of cough, leucorrhea and ureteritis. The essential oils from the two species: Houttuynia emeiensis and Houttuynia cordata sold in China under one trade name 'Yuxingcao', obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC-MS. The results show that fifty-five components were identified and methyl nonyl ketone (2.10-40.36%), bornyl acetate (0.4-8.61%) and beta-myrcene (2.58-18.47%) were the most abundant components in oil, but the percentage of most of compounds in different species and parts varied greatly. The two fold broth dilution and agar dilution method were used to study essential oil of two Houttuynia THUNB. species for their antibacterial properties against microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Sarcina ureae. The two fold dilution method was allowed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil from different parts and species. Results showed that all essential oils possessed antibacterial effect, with MIC values in the range of 0.0625 x 10(-3) to 4.0 x 10(-3) ml/ml. However, essential oil from different parts and species differed clearly in their antibacterial activities. The essential oil from the aboveground part of the cultivated Houttuynia emeiensis exhibited higher activity than both parts of the wild and cultivated Houttuynia cordata when used on Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 0.25 x 10(-3) ml/ml) and Sarcina ureae (MIC = 0.0625 x 10(-3) ml/ml), and had the same activity as the positive control ampicillin sodium.CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN 08/2006; 54(7):936-40. · 1.56 Impact Factor