Comparing chemical fingerprints of herbal medicines using modified window target-testing factor analysis.
ABSTRACT A "chromatographic fingerprint" of a herbal medicine is essentially its chromatographic spectrum: a characteristic representation of its chemical components, some of which are pharmacologically active. Since a wide variety of factors, such as the geographical location, the harvest season, and the part used can influence the chemical constituents (and therefore the pharmacological activity) of any particular herbal medicine and its products, these fingerprints provide a way to compare and contrast the compositions of different variants of the same herbal medicine. In particular, it is possible to ascertain whether particular components present in one herbal fingerprint are also present in another fingerprint. In this work we use a novel method-modified window target-testing factor analysis (MWTTFA), based on the use of target factor analysis (TFA), fixed-size moving window evolving factor analysis (FSMWEFA) and a Gaussian shape correction to the chromatographic profiles-to achieve this end. To demostrate the strategy, the fingerprints of samples from garlics produced in different geographical locations were compared, as well as the fingerprints of samples taken from above-ground and below-ground parts of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. The results from these comparisons clearly show that four chemical components present in Hunan common edible garlic are absent in Xingping base garlic, while seven components are present in Xingping base garlic but absent in Hunan common edible garlic. Also, eleven components are present in the sample from the above-ground part of Houttuynia cordata Thunb but not in the sample from the below-ground part, while seven components are present in the sample from the below-ground part of Houttuynia cordata Thunb that are not present in the sample from the above-ground part. These interesting conclusions should be very useful for future pharmacological and clinical research into these herbal medicines, and the novel MWTTFA technique can also be used for quality control purposes.
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ABSTRACT: A total of 25 sugarcane spirit extracts of six different Brazilian woods and oak, commonly used by cooperage industries for aging cachaça, were analyzed for the presence of 14 phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, synapaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, vanillic acid, syringic acid, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, catechin, epicatechin, eugenol, and myricetin) and two coumarins (scopoletin and coumarin) by HPLC-DAD-fluorescence and HPLC-ESI-MSn. Furthermore, an HPLC-DAD chromatographic fingerprint was build-up using chemometric analysis based on the chromatographic elution profiles of the extracts monitored at 280 nm. Major components identified and quantified in Brazilian wood extracts were coumarin, ellagic acid, and catechin, whereas oak extracts shown a major contribution of catechin, vanillic acid, and syringaldehyde. The main difference observed among oak and Brazilian woods remains in the concentration of coumarin, catechin, syringaldehyde, and coniferaldehyde. The chemometric analysis of the quantitative profile of the 14 phenolic compounds and two coumarins in the wood extracts provides a differentiation between the Brazilian wood and oak extracts. The chromatographic fingerprint treated by multivariate analysis revealed significant differences among Brazilian woods themselves and oak, clearly defining six groups of wood extracts: (i) oak extracts, (ii) jatobá extracts, (iii) cabreúva-parda extracts, (iv) amendoim extracts, (v) canela-sassafrás extracts and (vi) pequi extracts.Journal of Separation Science 11/2009; 32(21):3681 - 3691. DOI:10.1002/jssc.200900306 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this work, a novel strategy based on chromatographic fingerprints and some chemometric techniques is proposed for quantitative analysis of the formulated complex system. Here, the formulated complex system means a formulated type of complicated analytical system containing more than one kind of raw material under some concentration composition according to a certain formula. The strategy is elaborated by an example of quantitative determination of mixtures consist of three essential oils. Three key steps of the strategy are as follows: (1) remove baselines of the chromatograms; (2) align retention time; (3) conduct quantitative analysis using multivariate regression with entire chromatographic profiles. Through the determination of concentration compositions of nine mixtures arranged by uniform design, the feasibility of the proposed strategy is validated and the factors that influence the quantitative result are also discussed. This strategy is proved to be viable and the validation indicates that quantitative result obtained using this strategy mainly depends on the efficiency of the alignment method as well as chromatographic peak shape of the chromatograms. Previously, chromatographic fingerprints were only used for identification and/or recognition of some products. This work demonstrates that with the assistance of some effective chemometric techniques, chromatographic fingerprints are also potential and promising in solving quantitative problems of complex analytical systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Chromatography A 11/2014; 1370:179-86. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2014.10.050 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This work is mainly oriented to give an overview of the progress of multivariate curve resolution methods in the last 5 years. Conceived as a review that combines theory and practice, it will present the basics needed to understand what is the use, prospects and limitations of this family of chemometric methods with the latest trends in theoretical contributions and in the field of analytical applications.Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 12/2006; 36:163-176. DOI:10.1080/10408340600970005 · 2.69 Impact Factor