Overview of diagnosis and drug treatments of anxiety disorders

Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
CNS spectrums (Impact Factor: 2.71). 02/2005; 10(1):49-56.
Source: PubMed


Anxiety disorders are common and often disabling. They fall into five main categories: panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, each of which have characteristic symptoms and cognitions. All anxiety disorders respond to drugs and psychological treatments. This review will focus on drug treatments. Recent research has emphasized the value of antidepressants especially the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, and related sedative-like compounds. The common co-existence of depression with all of the anxiety disorders means that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are now generally considered to be the first-line treatments but the benzodiazepines have some utility especially in promoting sleep and working acutely to reduce extreme distress.

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    • "Treatment with buspirone, a partial 5-HT 1A receptor agonist that is used for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (Connor and Davidson, 1998) but does not have therapeutic value in the treatment of panic disorder (Nutt, 2005), has no effect on these measures (de Bortoli et al., 2006;Zanoveli et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Deakin/Graeff hypothesis proposes that different subpopulations of serotonergic neurons through topographically organized projections to forebrain and brainstem structures modulate the response to acute and chronic stressors, and that dysfunction of these neurons increases vulnerability to affective and anxiety disorders, including Panic Disorder. We outline evidence supporting the existence of a serotonergic system originally discussed by Deakin/Graeff that is implicated in the inhibition of panic-like behavioral and physiological responses. Evidence supporting this panic inhibition system comes from the following observations: 1) serotonergic neurons located in the ‘ventrolateral dorsal raphe nucleus (DRVL) as well as the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VLPAG) inhibit dorsal periaqueductal gray-elicited panic-like responses; 2) chronic, but not acute, antidepressant treatment potentiates serotonin's panicolytic effect; 3) contextual fear activates a central nucleus of the amygdala-DRVL/VLPAG circuit implicated in mediating freezing and inhibiting panic-like escape behaviors; 4) DRVL/VLPAG serotonergic neurons are central chemoreceptors and modulate the behavioral and cardiorespiratory response to panicogenic agents such as sodium lactate and CO2. Implications of the panic inhibition system are discussed.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 10/2014; 46. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.03.010 · 8.80 Impact Factor
    • "The elevation in basal serotonin levels in H-FSS mice is in stark contrast to reduced serotonin tissue levels found in WKY rats, which also show depressivelike behavior like our H-FSS strain (Scholl et al., 2010). While elevation of central serotonin/noradrenaline levels through treatment with reuptake inhibitors reduces anxiety (Dell'Osso et al., 2010; Nutt, 2005), a dramatic reduction of central serotonin levels in tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and 2 double knockout mice does not lead to an anxiety phenotype (Savelieva et al., 2008). Furthermore, treatment with an irreversible, monoaminoxidase (MAO) inhibitor from gestational day 12 to postnatal day 21 reduced both anxiety levels (Blazevic et al., 2012) and the serotonin concentration in the frontal cortex and midbrain raphe region of adult Wistar rats (Hranilovic et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 minutes after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder.
    Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 08/2014; 17(6):1-36. DOI:10.3109/10253890.2014.954104 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    • "The availability of a pharmacologic treatment that effectively manages anxious depression would be an important development for the therapeutics of MDD. As many of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have established efficacy for anxiety disorders, they are commonly considered a first-line treatment for anxious depression (Nutt, 2005). For patients who do not respond to SSRIs, alternatives include other newer generation antidepressants, such as the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and adjunctive therapy with atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder. A post-hoc analysis of two phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone on depression-related anxiety. Using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) Anxiety/Somatization subscale, patients were classified as anxious or nonanxious. Improvements in depressive symptoms were based on least squares mean changes in HAMD17 and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores. Anxiety symptoms in the anxious subgroup were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total and subscale (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale and item (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale Inner Tension item score. Most of the pooled study population [82.0% (708/863)] was classified with anxious depression. After 8 weeks of treatment, least squares mean differences between vilazodone and placebo for changes in HAMA total and HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale scores were -1.82 (95% confidence interval -2.81 to -0.83; P<0.001) and -0.75 (95% confidence interval -1.17 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Statistically significant improvements with vilazodone were also found on all other anxiety-related measures, except the HAMA Somatic Anxiety subscale. Vilazodone may be effective in treating patients with major depressive disorder who exhibit somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety.
    International Clinical Psychopharmacology 06/2014; 29(6). DOI:10.1097/YIC.0000000000000045 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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