Biophysical and biochemical properties of a binary lipid mixture for DNA transfection.
ABSTRACT The phase and miscibility behavior of a triple-chain phosphatidylcholine (TPHPC) and a single-chain surfactant (CTAB) were investigated in aqueous dispersions and in monolayers at the air/water interface. CTAB can be incorporated in the TPHPC monolayer because of its complementary molecule shape and reduces the tilt angle of TPHPC. The type of phases and the phase sequence (L2 - LS) are the same in the pure TPHPC monolayer and in the TPHPC/CTAB (80:20 mol:mol) mixture. No indication of any ordering of adsorbed DNA was observed. In the aqueous dispersions, TPHPC exhibits an inverted hexagonal phase above the chain melting. The addition of 30 mol% CTAB leads to the appearance of a lamellar Lalpha phase. The binding of DNA to the mixture is obvious but this is accompanied by a separation of the two lipids what is supported by monolayer experiments. The system has no long-term stability. The main reason seems to be not only the stronger interaction of DNA with CTAB, but also especially the unexpected weak interaction between CTAB and TPHPC. The transfection efficiency is lower compared with lipofectamine. The main disadvantage of this system is the cytotoxicity of CTAB, which could not be lowered by incorporation of CTAB in the TPHPC bilayer.
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ABSTRACT: Gene therapy is a technique utilized to treat diseases caused by missing, defective or overexpressing genes. Although viral vectors transfect cells efficiently, risks associated with their use limit their clinical applications. Nonviral delivery systems are safer, easier to manufacture, more versatile and cost effective. However, their transfection efficiency lags behind that of viral vectors. Many groups have dedicated considerable effort to improve the efficiency of nonviral gene delivery systems and are investigating complexes composed of DNA and soft materials such as lipids, polymers, peptides, dendrimers and gemini surfactants. The bottom-up approach in the design of these nanoparticles combines components essential for high levels of transfection, biocompatibility and tissue-targeting ability. This article provides an overview of the strategies employed to improve in vitro and in vivo transfection, focusing on the use of cationic lipids and surfactants as building blocks for nonviral gene delivery systems.Nanomedicine 09/2010; 5(7):1103-27. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A single-step LbL procedure to functionalize CTAB-capped GNRs via electrostatic self-assembly is reported. This approach allows for consistent biomolecule/GNR coupling using standard carboxyl-amine conjugation chemistry. The focus is on cancer-targeting biomolecule/GNR conjugates and selective photothermal destruction of cancer cells by GNR-mediated hyperthermia and NIR light. GNRs were conjugated to a single-chain antibody selective for colorectal carcinoma cells and used as probes to demonstrate photothermal therapy. Selective targeting and GNR uptake in antigen-expressing SW 1222 cells were observed using fluorescence microscopy. Selective photothermal therapy is demonstrated using SW 1222 cells, where >62% cell death was observed after cells are treated with targeted A33scFv-GNRs.Macromolecular Bioscience 03/2011; 11(6):779-88. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cationic liposome/DNA complexes can be used as nonviral vectors for direct delivery of DNA-based biopharmaceuticals to damaged cells and tissues. To obtain more effective and safer liposome-based gene transfection systems, two cationic lipids with identical head groups but different chain structures are investigated with respect to their in vitro gene-transfer activity, their cell-damaging characteristics, and their physicochemical properties. The gene-transfer activities of the two lipids are very different. Differential scanning calorimetry and synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering give valuable structural insight. A subgel-like structure with high packing density and high phase-transition temperature from gel to liquid-crystalline state are found for lipid 7 (N'-2-[(2,6-diamino-1-oxohexyl)amino]ethyl-2,N-bis(hexadecyl)propanediamide) containing two saturated chains. Additionally, an ordered head-group lattice based on formation of a hydrogen-bond network is present. In contrast, lipid 8 (N'-2-[(2,6-diamino-1-oxohexyl)amino]ethyl-2-hexadecyl-N-[(9Z)-octadec-9-enyl]propanediamide) with one unsaturated and one saturated chain shows a lower phase-transition temperature and a reduced packing density. These properties enhance incorporation of the helper lipid cholesterol needed for gene transfection. Both lipids, either pure or in mixtures with cholesterol, form lamellar phases, which are preserved after addition of DNA. However, the system separates into phases containing DNA and phases without DNA. On increasing the temperature, DNA is released and only a lipid phase without intercalated DNA strands is observed. The conversion temperatures are very different in the two systems studied. The important parameter seems to be the charge density of the lipid membranes, which is a result of different solubility of cholesterol in the two lipid membranes. Therefore, different binding affinities of the DNA to the lipid mixtures are achieved.ChemPhysChem 06/2011; 12(12):2328-37. · 3.35 Impact Factor