Article

Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is regulated by a UNC-73/TRIO-MIG-2/RhoG signaling module and armadillo repeats of CED-12/ELMO.

Department of Microbiology, Beirne Carter Center for Immunology Research, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.
Current Biology (Impact Factor: 9.49). 01/2005; 14(24):2208-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2004.12.029
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Phagocytosis of cells undergoing apoptosis is essential during development, cellular turnover, and wound healing. Failure to promptly clear apoptotic cells has been linked to autoimmune disorders. C. elegans CED-12 and mammalian ELMO are evolutionarily conserved scaffolding proteins that play a critical role in engulfment from worm to human. ELMO functions together with Dock180 (a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac) to mediate Rac-dependent cytoskeletal reorganization during engulfment and cell migration. However, the components upstream of ELMO and Dock180 during engulfment remain elusive.
Here, we define a conserved signaling module involving the small GTPase RhoG and its exchange factor TRIO, which functions upstream of ELMO/Dock180/Rac during engulfment. Complementary studies in C. elegans show that MIG-2 (which we identify as the homolog of mammalian RhoG) and UNC-73 (the TRIO homolog) also regulate corpse clearance in vivo, upstream of CED-12. At the molecular level, we identify a novel set of evolutionarily conserved Armadillo (ARM) repeats within CED-12/ELMO that mediate an interaction with activated MIG-2/RhoG; this, in turn, promotes Dock180-mediated Rac activation and cytoskeletal reorganization.
The combination of in vitro and in vivo studies presented here identify two evolutionarily conserved players in engulfment, TRIO/UNC73 and RhoG/MIG-2, and the TRIO --> RhoG signaling module is linked by ELMO/CED-12 to Dock180-dependent Rac activation during engulfment. This work also identifies ARM repeats within CED-12/ELMO and their role in linking RhoG and Rac, two GTPases that function in tandem during engulfment.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
94 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ingestion of particles or cells by phagocytosis and of fluids by macropinocytosis requires the formation of large endocytic vacuolar compartments inside cells by the organized movements of membranes and the actin cytoskeleton. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis is guided by the zipper-like progression of local, receptor-initiated responses that conform to particle geometry. By contrast, macropinosomes and some phagosomes form with little or no guidance from receptors. The common organizing structure is a cup-shaped invagination of the plasma membrane that becomes the phagosome or macropinosome. Recent studies, focusing on the physical properties of forming cups, indicate that a feedback mechanism regulates the signal transduction of phagocytosis and macropinocytosis.
    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 08/2008; 9(8):639-49. · 37.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Shigella use a special mechanism to invade epithelial cells called 'the trigger mechanism of entry', which allows epithelial cells to trap several bacteria simultaneously. On contact, Shigella deliver effectors into epithelial cells through the type III secretion system. Here, we show that one of the effectors, IpgB1, has a pivotal role in producing membrane ruffles by exploiting the RhoG-ELMO-Dock180 pathway to stimulate Rac1 activity. Using pulldown assays, we identified engulfment and cell motility (ELMO) protein as the IpgB1 binding partner. IpgB1 colocalized with ELMO and Dock180 in membrane ruffles induced by Shigella. Shigella invasiveness and IpgB1-induced ruffles were less in ELMO- and Dock180-knockdown cells compared with wild-type cells. Membrane association of ELMO-Dock180 with ruffles were promoted when cells expressed an IpgB1-ELMO chimera, establishing that IpgB1 mimics the role of RhoG in producing membrane ruffles. Taken together, our findings show that IpgB1 mimicry is the key to invasion by Shigella.
    Nature Cell Biology 02/2007; 9(1):121-8. · 20.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic Engulfment and CellMotility (ELMO) proteins form an evolutionary conserved family of key regulators which play a central role in Rho-dependent biological processes such as engulfment and cell motility/migration. ELMO proteins interact with a subset of Downstream of Crk (DOCK) family members, a new type of guanine exchange factors (GEF) for Rac and cdc42 GTPases. The physiological function of DOCK is to facilitate actin remodeling, a process which occurs only in presence of ELMO. Several studies have determined that the last 200 C-terminal residues of ELMO1 and the first 180 N-terminal residues of DOCK180 are responsible for the ELMO-DOCK interaction. However, the precise role of the different domains and motifs identified in these regions has remained elusive. Divergent functional, biochemical and structural data have been reported regarding the contribution of the C-terminal end of ELMO, comprising its polyproline motif, and of the DOCK SH3 domain. In the present study, we have investigated the contribution of the C-terminal end of ELMO1 to the interaction between ELMO1 and the SH3 domain of DOCK180 using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Our data presented here demonstrate the ability of the SH3 domain of DOCK180 to interact with ELMO1, regardless of the presence of the polyproline-containing C-terminal end. However, the presence of the polyproline region leads to a significant increase in the half-life of the ELMO1-DOCK180 complex, along with a moderate increase on the affinity.
    Biochimie 12/2011; 94(3):823-8. · 3.14 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
33 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014