Effects of environmental anoxia and different periods of reoxygenation on oxidative balance in gills of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata.
ABSTRACT We investigated the effects of anoxia (8 h) and different periods of reoxygenation (20 and 40 min) on the oxidative balance in anterior and posterior gills of the crab Chasmagnathus granulata. Enzyme activity of catalase and GST was increased in the gills of the animals submitted to anoxia, and SOD activity was decreased. These enzymes returned approximately to control levels during the anoxia recovery time. These results demonstrated enzyme activities change with variations in environmental oxygen levels. The posterior gills showed a higher antioxidant enzyme activity than anterior gills. In the gills, there were no changes in the non-enzymatic antioxidant system (TRAP) during anoxia. On the other hand, during anoxia recovery, an increase of TRAP in both gills was observed. Anoxia does not change lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the gills. During anoxia recuperation, an increase in levels of TBARS was observed. Thus the results demonstrate that C. granulata has a similar strategy of preparation for oxidative stress as observed in other intertidal species, enabling the crabs to survive in an environment with extreme variations in physical and chemical characteristics, such as salt marshes.
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about the capacity of early life stages to undergo hypercapnic and thermal acclimation under the future scenarios of ocean acidification and warming. Here, we investigated a comprehensive set of biological responses to these climate change-related variables (2°C above winter and summer average spawning temperatures and ΔpH=0.5 units) during the early ontogeny of the squid Loligo vulgaris. Embryo survival rates ranged from 92% to 96% under present-day temperature (13-17°C) and pH (8.0) scenarios. Yet, ocean acidification (pH 7.5) and summer warming (19°C) led to a significant drop in the survival rates of summer embryos (47%, P<0.05). The embryonic period was shortened by increasing temperature in both pH treatments (P<0.05). Embryo growth rates increased significantly with temperature under present-day scenarios, but there was a significant trend reversal under future summer warming conditions (P<0.05). Besides pronounced premature hatching, a higher percentage of abnormalities was found in summer embryos exposed to future warming and lower pH (P<0.05). Under the hypercapnic scenario, oxygen consumption rates decreased significantly in late embryos and newly hatched paralarvae, especially in the summer period (P<0.05). Concomitantly, there was a significant enhancement of the heat shock response (HSP70/HSC70) with warming in both pH treatments and developmental stages. Upper thermal tolerance limits were positively influenced by acclimation temperature, and such thresholds were significantly higher in late embryos than in hatchlings under present-day conditions (P<0.05). In contrast, the upper thermal tolerance limits under hypercapnia were higher in hatchlings than in embryos. Thus, we show that the stressful abiotic conditions inside the embryo's capsules will be exacerbated under near-future ocean acidification and summer warming scenarios. The occurrence of prolonged embryogenesis along with lowered thermal tolerance limits under such conditions is expected to negatively affect the survival success of squid early life stages during the summer spawning period, but not winter spawning.Journal of Experimental Biology 02/2014; 217(Pt 4):518-25. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Estuarine waters are prone to regular bouts of low oxygen (hypoxia) and high carbon dioxide (hypercapnia). In vertebrates, tissue hypoxia followed by reoxygenation can generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that exceed cellular antioxidant capacity, leading to tissue damage. Here we quantified the expression of several antioxidant genes in the hepatopancreas of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after exposure to hypoxia or hypercapnic hypoxia for 4 h or 24 h followed by recovery in air-saturated water (normoxia) for 0, 1, 6 or 24 h, as compared to time-matched controls maintained only in normoxia. Transcripts of cytoplasmic Mn-superoxide dismutase (cMnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and peptide-methionine (R)-S-oxide reductase (MsrB) increased after 4 h exposure to either hypoxia or hypercapnic hypoxia; these elevated transcript levels persisted longer in animals recovering from hypercapnic hypoxia than hypoxia alone. cMnSOD transcripts generally increased, but GPX, MsrB, glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and thioredoxin 1 (TRX-1) decreased or did not change in most long-term (24 h) treatment- recovery groups. Thus, the transcriptional responses of several antioxidant genes during recovery from tidally-driven hypoxia and hypercapnic hypoxia decrease or are muted by more persistent exposure to these conditions, leaving L. vannamei potentially vulnerable to ROS damage during recovery.Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 04/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to determine whether different durations of severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2.L- 1) followed by reoxygenation cause damage to the locomotor muscle of the crab Neohelice granulata. We evaluated reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), mitochondrial membrane potential, and aerobic fiber area of the locomotor muscle after different periods of hypoxia (1, 4, or 10 h) followed by 30 or 120 min of reoxygenation. Additionally, changes in cell volume, mitochondrial dysfunction, and infiltration of hemocytes were evaluated after hypoxia and a subsequent 2, 24, or 48 h of reoxygenation. After hypoxia, neither ROS nor LPO increased. However, mitochondrial membrane potential and aerobic fiber area decreased in a time-dependent manner. After reoxygenation, the ROS and LPO levels increased and mitochondrial membrane potential decreased, but these quickly recovered in crabs exposed to 4 h of hypoxia. On the other hand, alterations of mitochondria resulted in morphological changes in aerobic fibers, which required more time to recover during reoxygenation after 10 h of hypoxia. The locomotor muscles of the crab N. granulata suffer damage after hypoxia and reoxygenation. The intensity of this damage is dependent on the duration of hypoxia. In all experimental situations analyzed, the locomotor muscle of this crab was capable of recovery.Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 01/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor