Effects of environmental anoxia and different periods of reoxygenation on oxidative balance in gills of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata.
ABSTRACT We investigated the effects of anoxia (8 h) and different periods of reoxygenation (20 and 40 min) on the oxidative balance in anterior and posterior gills of the crab Chasmagnathus granulata. Enzyme activity of catalase and GST was increased in the gills of the animals submitted to anoxia, and SOD activity was decreased. These enzymes returned approximately to control levels during the anoxia recovery time. These results demonstrated enzyme activities change with variations in environmental oxygen levels. The posterior gills showed a higher antioxidant enzyme activity than anterior gills. In the gills, there were no changes in the non-enzymatic antioxidant system (TRAP) during anoxia. On the other hand, during anoxia recovery, an increase of TRAP in both gills was observed. Anoxia does not change lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the gills. During anoxia recuperation, an increase in levels of TBARS was observed. Thus the results demonstrate that C. granulata has a similar strategy of preparation for oxidative stress as observed in other intertidal species, enabling the crabs to survive in an environment with extreme variations in physical and chemical characteristics, such as salt marshes.
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ABSTRACT: Catalase (EC 18.104.22.168) is an antioxidant enzyme involved in redox equilibrium, regulating hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) concentration, a harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is produced during hypoxia. Hypoxia occurs commonly in aquatic environments and in shrimp farms. In the present study we studied the catalase gene of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and tested its expression and enzyme activity during hypoxia (1.5mg/L O(2); 6 and 24h) and reoxygenation (1h after hypoxia). The complete gene is 2974bp long and has four introns of 821, 223, 114 and 298bp, respectively. The first intron has tree microsatellites, with GT and (T)AT(GT) repeated sequences. L. vannamei catalase is part of an invertebrate clade including crustaceans and rotifers. Catalase expression and activity is different in gills and hepatopancreas. Expression in gills increased 3.2 and 3-fold in response to hypoxia and reoxygenation (6 and 24h hypoxia, followed by 1h reoxygenation) compared to normoxia, while no differences were detected in the expression and activity in hepatopancreas. Catalase activity in gills had a contrary response to expression in hypoxia and reoxygenation.Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 11/2012; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Estuarine waters are prone to regular bouts of low oxygen (hypoxia) and high carbon dioxide (hypercapnia). In vertebrates, tissue hypoxia followed by reoxygenation can generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that exceed cellular antioxidant capacity, leading to tissue damage. Here we quantified the expression of several antioxidant genes in the hepatopancreas of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after exposure to hypoxia or hypercapnic hypoxia for 4 h or 24 h followed by recovery in air-saturated water (normoxia) for 0, 1, 6 or 24 h, as compared to time-matched controls maintained only in normoxia. Transcripts of cytoplasmic Mn-superoxide dismutase (cMnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and peptide-methionine (R)-S-oxide reductase (MsrB) increased after 4 h exposure to either hypoxia or hypercapnic hypoxia; these elevated transcript levels persisted longer in animals recovering from hypercapnic hypoxia than hypoxia alone. cMnSOD transcripts generally increased, but GPX, MsrB, glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and thioredoxin 1 (TRX-1) decreased or did not change in most long-term (24 h) treatment- recovery groups. Thus, the transcriptional responses of several antioxidant genes during recovery from tidally-driven hypoxia and hypercapnic hypoxia decrease or are muted by more persistent exposure to these conditions, leaving L. vannamei potentially vulnerable to ROS damage during recovery.Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 01/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to determine whether different durations of severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2.L- 1) followed by reoxygenation cause damage to the locomotor muscle of the crab Neohelice granulata. We evaluated reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), mitochondrial membrane potential, and aerobic fiber area of the locomotor muscle after different periods of hypoxia (1, 4, or 10 h) followed by 30 or 120 min of reoxygenation. Additionally, changes in cell volume, mitochondrial dysfunction, and infiltration of hemocytes were evaluated after hypoxia and a subsequent 2, 24, or 48 h of reoxygenation. After hypoxia, neither ROS nor LPO increased. However, mitochondrial membrane potential and aerobic fiber area decreased in a time-dependent manner. After reoxygenation, the ROS and LPO levels increased and mitochondrial membrane potential decreased, but these quickly recovered in crabs exposed to 4 h of hypoxia. On the other hand, alterations of mitochondria resulted in morphological changes in aerobic fibers, which required more time to recover during reoxygenation after 10 h of hypoxia. The locomotor muscles of the crab N. granulata suffer damage after hypoxia and reoxygenation. The intensity of this damage is dependent on the duration of hypoxia. In all experimental situations analyzed, the locomotor muscle of this crab was capable of recovery.Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 01/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor