Long-term results of preoperative chemoradiation for distal rectal cancer correlation between final stage and survival.

Colorectal Surgery Division, Department of Gastroenterology, University of São Paulo-School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.39). 02/2005; 9(1):90-9; discussion 99-101. DOI: 10.1016/j.gassur.2004.10.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neoadjuvant chemoradiation treatment (CRT) has resulted in significant tumor downstaging and improved local disease control for distal rectal cancer. The purpose of the present study was to determine the correlation between final stage and survival in these patients regardless of initial disease stage. Two hundred sixty patients with distal (0-7 cm from anal verge) rectal adenocarcinoma considered resectable were treated by neoadjuvant CRT with 5-FU and leucovorin plus 5040 cGy. Patients with incomplete clinical response 8 weeks after CRT completion were treated by radical surgical resection. Patients with complete clinical response were managed by observation alone. Overall survival and disease-free survival were compared according to Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests according to final stage. Seventy-one patients (28%) showed complete clinical response (clinical stage 0). One hundred sixty-nine patients showed incomplete clinical response and were treated with surgery. In 22 of these patients (9%), pathologic examination revealed pT0 N0 M0 (stage p0), 59 patients (22%) had stage I, 68 patients (26%) had stage II, and 40 patients (15%) had stage III disease. Overall survival rates were significantly higher in stage c0 (P=0.01) compared with stage p0. Disease-free survival rate showed better results in stage c0, but the results were not significant. Five-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 97.7% and 84% (stage 0); 94% and 74% (stage I); 83% and 50% (stage II); and 56% and 28% (stage III), respectively. Cancer-related overall and disease-free survival may be correlated to final pathologic staging following neoadjuvant CRT for distal rectal cancer. Also, stage 0 is significantly associated with improved outcome.

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To describe the clinical and histopathological characteristics and outcomes of patient with non-surgically managed locally advanced rectal cancer and a complete clinical response to neoadjuvant treatment. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on a cohort of patients with stages II and III rectal cancer, on clinical follow up after subjected to chemoradiotherapy. The overall disease free survival and recurrence rates were evaluated. The biological (Kras, Ki67, p53) and morphological (grade, lymphovascular and perineural invasion) characteristics of the tumor were recorded. Results Between January 2003 and June 2013, a total of 19 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and a complete clinical response after neoadjuvant treatment, did not accept radical surgical treatment. With a median follow-up of 21 months (range 4-92 months), the recurrences were: 21% in the first year, 36% at 3 years, and 42% at 5 years (total: 8 patients). There was local recurrence in 50% of the cases, regional in 50%, and there were no systemic recurrences. The estimated local recurrence rate was 2.3 recurrences per 100 patients/month (95% CI; 1.21 – 4.5), and a regional recurrence of 1.3 recurrences per 100 patients/month (95% CI: 0.5 – 3.1). No relationship was found between the expression of biological factors of the primary tumor and the outcomes. Conclusions The indication for radical surgical treatment after neoadjuvant treatment is demonstrated in all patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. The low local and regional recurrence rates of this series suggest the possibility of local resection or observation in selected cases. Individualization and the wishes of the patient must be taken into account when making decisions.
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    ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) is considered one of the preferred treatment strategies for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. This strategy may lead to significant tumor regression, ultimately leading to a complete pathologic response in up to 42% of patients. Assessment of tumor response following CRT and before radical surgery may identify patients with a complete clinical response who could possibly be managed nonoperatively with strict follow-up (watch-and-wait strategy). The present article deals with critical issues regarding appropriate selection of patients for this approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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