Outbreak of dermatophytosis in farmed mink in the USA

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Oregon State University, PO Box 429, Corvallis, OR 97339, USA.
The Veterinary record (Impact Factor: 1.49). 01/2005; 155(23):746-8. DOI: 10.1136/vr.155.23.746
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: A 3-year-old male chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) shot during a harvest plan in Piedmont (Italy) presented periocular alopecic and thickened crusty lesions, some of which slightly red in colour. Hair still present was broken and easily removed. Direct microscopic examination of the pathological material collected by skin scraping led to the diagnosis of dermatophytosis, as the hair shafts appeared invaded by unstained spherical spores (arthroconidia). Fungal growth was obtained by culturing hair and crusts on thiamine/inositol enriched Sabouraud’s medium at 37°C. The macro- and microscopic characteristics of the organism were typical of the dermatophyte Trichophyton verrucosum. Wild ruminants are rarely affected by dermatophytosis, whereas in cattle, sheep and goats, infection because of this dermatophyte is quite common. This seems to be the first case of infection by T. verrucosum in chamois.
    European Journal of Wildlife Research 02/2007; 54(1):153-156. DOI:10.1007/s10344-007-0120-4 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dermatophytosis is a relatively common disease in many countries occurring endemically both in companion and food animals. Fungi belonging to the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are most often isolated from clinical cases. Measures to control and prevent dermatophytosis include sanitation, hygienic measures and treatment. In some countries, successful control and eradication have been achieved by mass vaccination of cattle and fur-bearing animals. Vaccines containing live attenuated cells of the fungus stimulate a cell-mediated immune response conferring long-lasting protection against subsequent challenge by the homologous fungus. A delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test using appropriate dermatophyte antigens is suitable to assess the response. Inactivated dermatophyte vaccines are available for use in cattle, horse, dog, and cat in some countries. However, the scientific literature is scarce making it difficult to conclude on efficacy and appropriate use. Current vaccines are all first generation vaccines. Attempts have been made to prepare subunit vaccines based on new knowledge about virulence factors like the keratinases, so far with limited success. Candidate antigens must be able to stimulate a strong T helper 1 cell response and future research should focus on identification of major T-cell epitopes that specifically elicit a DTH reaction. Dermatophytosis is a zoonotic disease. In Norway and a few other countries, systematic vaccination against cattle ringworm has almost eliminated the disease, and ringworm in man caused by T. verrucosum is almost nonexistent. A similar benefit could be expected if a safe and efficacious vaccine was available for Microsporum canis infection in cats and dogs.
    Mycopathologia 06/2008; 166(5-6):407-24. DOI:10.1007/s11046-008-9111-6 · 1.53 Impact Factor

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