Physical activity in relation to cognitive decline in elderly men: The FINE Study
ABSTRACT Physical activity may be associated with better cognition.
To investigate whether change in duration and intensity of physical activity is associated with 10-year cognitive decline in elderly men.
Data of 295 healthy survivors, born between 1900 and 1920, from the Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands Elderly (FINE) Study were used. From 1990 onward, physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire for retired men and cognitive functioning with the Mini-Mental State Examination (maximum score 30 points).
The rates of cognitive decline did not differ among men with a high or low duration of activity at baseline. However, a decrease in activity duration of >60 min/day over 10 years resulted in a decline of 1.7 points (p < 0.0001). This decline was 2.6 times stronger than the decline of men who maintained their activity duration (p = 0.06). Men in the lowest intensity quartile at baseline had a 1.8 (p = 0.07) to 3.5 (p = 0.004) times stronger 10-year cognitive decline than those in the other quartiles. A decrease in intensity of physical activity of at least half a standard deviation was associated with a 3.6 times stronger decline than maintaining the level of intensity (p = 0.003).
Even in old age, participation in activities with at least a medium-low intensity may postpone cognitive decline. Moreover, a decrease in duration or intensity of physical activity results in a stronger cognitive decline than maintaining duration or intensity.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of progressive resistance exercise training (PRET) on motor and nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: First, we perform a systematic review of the literature on the effects of PRET on motor signs of PD, functional outcomes, quality of life, and patient perceived improvement, strength, and cognition in PD. Second, we perform a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Finally, we discuss the results of our review and we identify current knowledge gaps regarding PRET in PD. Conclusion: This systematic review synthesizes evidence that PRET can improve strength and motor signs of Parkinsonism in PD and may also be beneficial for physical function in individuals with PD. Further research is needed to explore the effects of PRET on nonmotor symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and quality of life in individuals with PD.02/2015; Volume 4(Issue 1):11 – 27. DOI:10.1123/kr.2014-0074
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ABSTRACT: The present study used a coordinated analyses approach to examine the association of physical activity and cognitive change in four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with physical activity included both as a fixed (between-person) and time-varying (within-person) predictor of four domains of cognitive function (reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge) was used. Baseline physical activity predicted fluency, reasoning and memory in two studies. However, there was a consistent pattern of positive relationships between time-specific changes in physical activity and time-specific changes in cognition, controlling for expected linear trajectories over time, across all four studies. This pattern was most evident for the domains of reasoning and fluency.Journal of aging research 09/2012; 2012:493598. DOI:10.1155/2012/493598
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the association between smoking, physical activity and dietary choice at 36 and 43 years, and change in these lifestyle behaviors between these ages, and decline in verbal memory and visual search speed between 43 and 60-64 years in 1018 participants from MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD, the British 1946 birth cohort). ANCOVA models were adjusted for sex, social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment, adult social class, and depression; then the lifestyle behaviors were additionally mutually adjusted. Results showed that healthy dietary choice and physical activity were associated, respectively, with slower memory and visual search speed decline over 20 years, with evidence that increasing physical activity was important. Adopting positive health behaviors from early midlife may be beneficial in reducing the rate of cognitive decline and ultimately reducing the risk of dementia.Journal of aging research 09/2012; 2012:304014. DOI:10.1155/2012/304014