Physical activity may be associated with better cognition.
To investigate whether change in duration and intensity of physical activity is associated with 10-year cognitive decline in elderly men.
Data of 295 healthy survivors, born between 1900 and 1920, from the Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands Elderly (FINE) Study were used. From 1990 onward, physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire for retired men and cognitive functioning with the Mini-Mental State Examination (maximum score 30 points).
The rates of cognitive decline did not differ among men with a high or low duration of activity at baseline. However, a decrease in activity duration of >60 min/day over 10 years resulted in a decline of 1.7 points (p < 0.0001). This decline was 2.6 times stronger than the decline of men who maintained their activity duration (p = 0.06). Men in the lowest intensity quartile at baseline had a 1.8 (p = 0.07) to 3.5 (p = 0.004) times stronger 10-year cognitive decline than those in the other quartiles. A decrease in intensity of physical activity of at least half a standard deviation was associated with a 3.6 times stronger decline than maintaining the level of intensity (p = 0.003).
Even in old age, participation in activities with at least a medium-low intensity may postpone cognitive decline. Moreover, a decrease in duration or intensity of physical activity results in a stronger cognitive decline than maintaining duration or intensity.
"Indeed, cognitive impairment has been identified as an independent risk factor for falls (Latt, Lord, Morris, & Fung, 2009), and a recent study found that impairments in executive function were associated with inferior performance on measures of gait and balance in PD (Xu et al., 2014). Exercise in general has been shown to improve executive function and prevent cognitive decline in healthy individuals (Larson et al., 2006; van Gelder et al., 2004). One clinical trial provides class II level of evidence that 24 months of PRET is effective in improving attention and working memory in nondemented patients with mild-to-moderate PD when evaluated off medication, but this effect was not different than an exercising control group (David et al., 2015). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of progressive resistance exercise training (PRET) on motor and nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: First, we perform a systematic review of the literature on the effects of PRET on motor signs of PD, functional outcomes, quality of life, and patient perceived improvement, strength, and cognition in PD. Second, we perform a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Finally, we discuss the results of our review and we identify current knowledge gaps regarding PRET in PD. Conclusion: This systematic review synthesizes evidence that PRET can improve strength and motor signs of Parkinsonism in PD and may also be beneficial for physical function in individuals with PD. Further research is needed to explore the effects of PRET on nonmotor symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and quality of life in individuals with PD.
"These results and the results of the present study showed that exercising may have a similar effect on cognition for diabetic patients as well as general population. A decrease in duration or intensity of physical activity results in cognitive decline . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes along with chronic hyperglycemia may result in cognitive impairment. This can negatively affect the patient's adherence to diabetes treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive status and foot self care practice in overweight type 2 diabetic patients who exercised regularly and those who did not.
The comparative study was conducted on 160 consecutive patients from an outpatient diabetes clinic. They were divided into two groups: The active group comprised of 80 patients engaged in regular exercise for at least 15-30 minutes, three times per week during the past 6 months. The control group included 80 patients who had not exercised regularly for the past 12 months, matched for sex, age, education, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1C and body mass index (BMI: 25-29.9Kg/m2). Data on the patients' demographic information, foot care practice and physical activity habits were gathered using a questionnaire. The Mini Mental Status examination (MMSE) was applied to assess cognitive status.
MMSE score was significantly higher in the active group. A significant negative correlation was noted between MMSE scores and BMI in the control group (r = -0.2, P = 0.03). A significant difference was noted in the four domains of foot self care practice between the active (4.77 +/- 0.77) and control (4.45 +/- 0.83) groups (P < 0.01).
Regular physical activity can help promote cognitive status and foot self care practice in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes.
Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders 02/2014; 13(1):31. DOI:10.1186/2251-6581-13-31
"In this cohort, men who became less active over 10 years, as indicated by a decrease in activity of more than 60 minutes per day, had a 2.5 times higher risk for cognitive decline. Men whose physical activity intensity was reduced by 0.5 standard deviation (SD) or more over 10 years had a 3.6 times higher risk for cognitive decline.51 A similar finding related to exercise duration in women over the age of 65 was demonstrated by Yaffe et al from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures cohort (n=9,704).54 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults.
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