mTOR and P70S6 kinase expression in primary liver neoplasms
ABSTRACT mTOR and P70 S6 kinase (S6K) play a key role in regulating protein translation. The role of mTOR and S6K in hepatocellular carcinoma has not been investigated, but this pathway is of particular interest because an effective inhibitor, rapamycin, is available. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and clinicopathological correlates of mTOR pathway activation in hepatocellular carcinoma and to determine whether rapamycin inhibits the pathway in cell culture.
Total and phosphorylated mTOR and S6K protein expression were studied by immunohistochemistry in hepatocellular carcinomas (n = 73), fibrolamellar carcinomas (n = 13), and hepatic adenomas (n = 15). Results were correlated with tumor growth pattern as defined by the WHO (trabecular, pseudoglandular/acinar, compact, and scirrhous), tumor size, Ki-67 proliferation index, and the modified Edmondson nuclear grade, which has a scale of 1 to 4. HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines were treated with rapamycin to see the effect on proliferation and S6K phosphorylation.
Increased expression of total mTOR was seen in 5% of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas overexpression of phospho-mTOR was evident in 15% of hepatocellular carcinoma. Phospho-mTOR positivity correlated with increased expression of total S6K, which was found in 45% of cases. Total S6K overexpression was positively correlated with tumor nuclear grade, inversely with tumor size, and was unassociated with the proliferation index or WHO growth pattern. Rapamycin treatment of HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines markedly inhibited cell proliferation and reduced S6K phosphorylation in both cell lines.
The mTOR pathway is activated in a subset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Rapamycin can inhibit proliferation of neoplastic hepatocytes in cell culture.
- SourceAvailable from: Michelle E. Doscas[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Leflunomide is a novel immunomodulatory drug prescribed for treating rheumatoid arthritis. It inhibits the activity of protein tyrosine kinases and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis pathway. Here, we report that A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, inhibited the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and two other substrates of S6K1, insulin receptor substrate-1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 2, in an A375 melanoma cell line. A77 1726 increased the phosphorylation of AKT, p70 S6 (S6K1), ERK1/2, and MEK through the feedback activation of the IGF-1 receptor–mediated signaling pathway. Invitro kinase assay revealed that leflunomide and A77 1726 inhibited S6K1 activity with IC50 values of approximately 55 and 80 μM, respectively. Exogenous uridine partially blocked A77 1726–induced inhibition of A375 cell proliferation. S6K1 knockdown led to the inhibition of A375 cell proliferation but did not potentiate the antiproliferative effect of A77 1726. A77 1726 stimulated bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in A375 cells but arrested the cell cycle in the S phase, which was reversed by addition of exogenous uridine or by MAP kinase pathway inhibitors but not by rapamycin and LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor). These observations suggest that A77 1726 accelerates cell cycle entry into the S phase through MAP kinase activation and that pyrimidine nucleotide depletion halts the completion of the cell cycle. Our study identified a novel molecular target of A77 1726 and showed that the inhibition of S6K1 activity was in part responsible for its antiproliferative activity. Our study also provides a novel mechanistic insight into A77 1726–induced cell cycle arrest in the S phase.Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 10/2014; 16(10):824–834. DOI:10.1016/j.neo.2014.08.006 · 5.40 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, metabolism and aging in response to nutrients, cellular energy stage and growth factors. mTOR is frequently up-regulated in cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is associated with bad prognosis, poorly differentiated tumors, and earlier recurrence. Blocking mTOR with rapamycin and first generation mTOR inhibitors, called rapalogs, has shown promising reduction of HCC tumors growth in preclinical models. Currently, rapamycin/rapalogs are used in several clinical trials for the treatment of advanced HCC, and as adjuvant therapy in HCC patients after liver transplantation and TACE. A second generation of mTOR pathway inhibitors has been developed recently, and is being tested in various clinical trials of solid cancers and has been used in preclinical HCC models. The results of series of clinical trials using mTOR inhibitors in HCC treatment will emerge in the near future.Journal of Hepatology 12/2013; 60(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2013.11.031 · 10.40 Impact Factor
Chapter: Signaling Pathways in Liver CancerLiver Tumors, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0036-2