Colon microflora in infants fed formula with galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides: More like breast-fed infants
ABSTRACT The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants is generally dominated by Bifidobacteria. We aimed to investigate whether an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides (GOS/FOS) is able to establish a bifido-dominant microflora, not only in numbers but also with respect to the metabolic activity in the colon.
Two groups of infants fed infant formula with 0.8 g/100 ml GOS/FOS in a ratio of 9:1 (OSF group), or control formula (SF group) were evaluated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled intervention study. A breast-fed group was studied in parallel. At study onset and after 4 and 6 weeks, faecal samples were examined for the number of bifidobacteria, pH, short chain fatty acids and lactate.
After 6 weeks, the mean proportion of bifidobacteria was significantly higher in the OSF group (59.6% versus 49.5% in the SF group; P < 0.05). Compared with controls, infants in the OSF group had a lower stool mean pH and an increased proportion of acetate and a decreased proportion of propionate. The mean pH in the OSF and SF groups were 5.7 and 6.3, respectively (P < 0.001).
The addition of the prebiotic GOS/FOS mixture to an infant formula has a stimulating effect on the growth of bifidobacteria and on the metabolic activity of the total intestinal flora. The changes in short chain fatty acids, lactate and pH in the prebiotic group represent a fermentation profile that is closer to that observed in breast-fed infants compared to infants fed control formula.
Article: Prebiotics in infant formula[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.Gut Microbes 12/2014; 5(6). DOI:10.4161/19490976.2014.972237
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of a new reduced protein (2.1 g/100 kcal) infant formula containing 4 g/L of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Healthy term infants from Brazil were enrolled. Those born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers were randomized to a test (n = 65) or control (n = 63) formula group. Infants born to HIV-negative mothers were either exclusively breast-fed (n = 79) or received a mixed diet (breast milk and test formula, n = 65). Between 2 weeks and 4 months of age, infants were exclusively fed according to their assigned group. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months. Digestive tolerance was evaluated during the first 4 months. The primary outcome was mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups. Data from all infants (N = 272) were used in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and data from 230 infants were used in the per-protocol (PP) analysis. The difference in mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups was 1.257 g/day (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.705 to inf, P < 0.001) in the PP analysis, showing that the lower bound of the 95% CI was above the -3.0 g/day non-inferiority margin. Results were similar in the ITT analysis. Symptoms of digestive tolerance and frequency of adverse events were similar in the two groups. The formula containing 2.1 g/100 kcal protein and GOS and FOS was safe and tolerated well.03/2015; 9:37-47. DOI:10.4137/CMPed.S17841
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundA limited number of nondigestible oligosaccharides are available for use in infant formula. This study evaluated growth and safety in infants fed formula supplemented with a mixture of bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides (BMOS). This mixture, which was generated from whey permeate, contains galactooligosaccharides and other oligosaccharides from bovine milk, such as 3¿- and 6¿-sialyllactose. We hypothesized that growth in infants fed BMOS-supplemented formula would be noninferior to that in infants fed standard formula.Methods Healthy term infants ¿14 days old were randomly assigned to standard formula (control; n¿=¿84); standard formula with BMOS (IF-BMOS; n¿=¿99); or standard formula with BMOS and probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) (IF-BMOS¿+¿Pro; n¿=¿98). A breastfed reference group was also enrolled (n¿=¿30). The primary outcome was mean weight gain/day from enrollment to age 4 months (noninferiority margin: ¿3.0 g/day).Results189 (67.3%) formula-fed infants were included in the primary analysis. Mean differences in weight gain between the control and IF-BMOS and IF-BMOS¿+¿Pro groups were <1 g/day, with 97.5% confidence intervals above ¿3.0 g/day, indicating noninferior weight gain in the BMOS formula groups. Compared with control, infants in the BMOS groups had more frequent (p¿<¿0.0001) and less hard (p¿=¿0.0003) stools. No significant differences were observed between the control and BMOS groups in caregivers¿ reports of flatulence, vomiting, spitting up, crying, fussing, and colic. When based on clinical evaluation by the investigator, the incidence of colic was higher (p¿=¿0.01) in IF-BMOS than in control; the incidence of investigator-diagnosed colic was not significantly different in control and IF-BMOS¿+¿Pro (p¿=¿0.15). Stool bifidobacteria and lactobacilli counts were higher with IF-BMOS¿+¿Pro compared with control (p¿<¿0.05), whereas Clostridia counts were lower (p¿<¿0.05) in both BMOS groups compared with control.Conclusions Infant formula containing BMOS either with or without probiotics provides adequate nutrition for normal growth in healthy term infants. Further studies are needed to fully explore the digestive tolerance of BMOS formula.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01886898. Registered 24 June 2013.BMC Pediatrics 12/2014; 14(1):306. DOI:10.1186/s12887-014-0306-3 · 1.92 Impact Factor