Colon Microflora in Infants Fed Formula with Galacto- and Fructo-Oligosaccharides: More Like Breast-Fed Infants

Numico Research B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.87). 02/2005; 40(1):36-42. DOI: 10.1097/00005176-200501000-00007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants is generally dominated by Bifidobacteria. We aimed to investigate whether an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides (GOS/FOS) is able to establish a bifido-dominant microflora, not only in numbers but also with respect to the metabolic activity in the colon.
Two groups of infants fed infant formula with 0.8 g/100 ml GOS/FOS in a ratio of 9:1 (OSF group), or control formula (SF group) were evaluated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled intervention study. A breast-fed group was studied in parallel. At study onset and after 4 and 6 weeks, faecal samples were examined for the number of bifidobacteria, pH, short chain fatty acids and lactate.
After 6 weeks, the mean proportion of bifidobacteria was significantly higher in the OSF group (59.6% versus 49.5% in the SF group; P < 0.05). Compared with controls, infants in the OSF group had a lower stool mean pH and an increased proportion of acetate and a decreased proportion of propionate. The mean pH in the OSF and SF groups were 5.7 and 6.3, respectively (P < 0.001).
The addition of the prebiotic GOS/FOS mixture to an infant formula has a stimulating effect on the growth of bifidobacteria and on the metabolic activity of the total intestinal flora. The changes in short chain fatty acids, lactate and pH in the prebiotic group represent a fermentation profile that is closer to that observed in breast-fed infants compared to infants fed control formula.

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    • "Most of the studies available have focused on a commercially available mixture containing short chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS) and a high molecular weight fraction of inulin in a ratio 9:1 (Agostoni et al., 2010). This mixture has been shown to reduce stool pH and stool viscosity (Kapiki et al., 2007; Mihatsch, Hoegel, & Pohlandt, 2006), to modify gut microbiota in preterm and term infants (Bruzzese et al., 2009; Knol et al., 2005; Salvini et al., 2011) and to modulate the immune response (Arslanoglu et al., 2007; Bakker-Zierikzee et al., 2006; Bruzzese et al., 2009; Scholtens et al., 2008). Other studies reported that infant formula supplemented with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) alone influenced the gut microbiota colonization (Brunser et al., 2006; Euler, Mitchell, Kline, & Pickering, 2005; Paineau et al., 2014; Veereman-Wauters et al., 2011). "
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    04/2015; 1(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bcdf.2015.03.006
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    • "The ceacal SCFA levels of acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric and valeric acids were quantitatively determined as well as levels of lactic acids as described previously (Bakker-Zierikzee et al., 2005; Knol et al., 2005). The SCFA were captured using a Shimadzu GC2010 gas chromatograph (Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto, Japan) equipped with a flame ionisation detector. "
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    • "group and a subset of enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Klebsiella) by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as described by Knol et al. [27]. In addition, caregivers recorded stool frequency, size (small, moderate, large or huge), appearance (hard lumps, lumpy/allantoid, allantoid/cracked, allantoid/smooth, soft blobs, fluffy pieces, watery) and consistency (firm/hard, formed, soft/unformed, semi-liquid and watery) at Weeks −1, 1, 4 (no intake recorded) and 8. "
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