Colon Microflora in Infants Fed Formula with Galacto- and Fructo-Oligosaccharides: More Like Breast-Fed Infants
ABSTRACT The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants is generally dominated by Bifidobacteria. We aimed to investigate whether an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides (GOS/FOS) is able to establish a bifido-dominant microflora, not only in numbers but also with respect to the metabolic activity in the colon.
Two groups of infants fed infant formula with 0.8 g/100 ml GOS/FOS in a ratio of 9:1 (OSF group), or control formula (SF group) were evaluated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled intervention study. A breast-fed group was studied in parallel. At study onset and after 4 and 6 weeks, faecal samples were examined for the number of bifidobacteria, pH, short chain fatty acids and lactate.
After 6 weeks, the mean proportion of bifidobacteria was significantly higher in the OSF group (59.6% versus 49.5% in the SF group; P < 0.05). Compared with controls, infants in the OSF group had a lower stool mean pH and an increased proportion of acetate and a decreased proportion of propionate. The mean pH in the OSF and SF groups were 5.7 and 6.3, respectively (P < 0.001).
The addition of the prebiotic GOS/FOS mixture to an infant formula has a stimulating effect on the growth of bifidobacteria and on the metabolic activity of the total intestinal flora. The changes in short chain fatty acids, lactate and pH in the prebiotic group represent a fermentation profile that is closer to that observed in breast-fed infants compared to infants fed control formula.
- SourceAvailable from: Frederique Respondek
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- "Most of the studies available have focused on a commercially available mixture containing short chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS) and a high molecular weight fraction of inulin in a ratio 9:1 (Agostoni et al., 2010). This mixture has been shown to reduce stool pH and stool viscosity (Kapiki et al., 2007; Mihatsch, Hoegel, & Pohlandt, 2006), to modify gut microbiota in preterm and term infants (Bruzzese et al., 2009; Knol et al., 2005; Salvini et al., 2011) and to modulate the immune response (Arslanoglu et al., 2007; Bakker-Zierikzee et al., 2006; Bruzzese et al., 2009; Scholtens et al., 2008). Other studies reported that infant formula supplemented with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) alone influenced the gut microbiota colonization (Brunser et al., 2006; Euler, Mitchell, Kline, & Pickering, 2005; Paineau et al., 2014; Veereman-Wauters et al., 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Few studies have assessed efficacy and safety of prebiotics in infants at the time of diversification. We investigated the beneficial effects of a follow-on milk formula supplemented with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) in healthy infants after 4 months of age.04/2015; 1(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bcdf.2015.03.006
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- "The ceacal SCFA levels of acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric and valeric acids were quantitatively determined as well as levels of lactic acids as described previously (Bakker-Zierikzee et al., 2005; Knol et al., 2005). The SCFA were captured using a Shimadzu GC2010 gas chromatograph (Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto, Japan) equipped with a flame ionisation detector. "
ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders with evidence of genetic predisposition. Intestinal disturbances are reported in ASD patients and compositional changes in gut microbiota are described. However, the role of microbiota in brain disorders is poorly documented. Here, we used a murine model of ASD to investigate the relation between gut microbiota and autism-like behaviour. Using next generation sequencing technology, microbiota composition was investigated in mice in utero exposed to valproic acid (VPA). Moreover, levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid in caecal content were determined. Our data demonstrate a transgenerational impact of in utero VPA exposure on gut microbiota in the offspring. Prenatal VPA exposure affected Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) assigned to genera within the main phyla of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and the order of Desulfovibrionales, corroborating human ASD studies. In addition, OTUs assigned to genera of Alistipes, Enterorhabdus, Mollicutes and Erysipelotrichalis were especially associated with male VPA-exposed offspring. The microbial differences of VPA in utero-exposed males deviated from those observed in females and was (i) positively associated with increased levels of caecal butyrate as well as ileal neutrophil infiltration and (ii) inversely associated with intestinal levels of serotonin and social behaviour scores. These findings show that autism-like behaviour and its intestinal phenotype is associated with altered microbial colonization and activity in a murine model for ASD, with preponderance in male offspring. These results open new avenues in the scientific trajectory of managing neurodevelopmental disorders by gut microbiome modulation.Brain Behavior and Immunity 12/2013; 37. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2013.12.005 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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- "group and a subset of enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Klebsiella) by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as described by Knol et al. . In addition, caregivers recorded stool frequency, size (small, moderate, large or huge), appearance (hard lumps, lumpy/allantoid, allantoid/cracked, allantoid/smooth, soft blobs, fluffy pieces, watery) and consistency (firm/hard, formed, soft/unformed, semi-liquid and watery) at Weeks −1, 1, 4 (no intake recorded) and 8. "
ABSTRACT: This exploratory study investigated the influence of adding a patented, specific mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS [9:1 ratio], Danone Research) to a protein substitute suitable for infants with Phenylketonuria (PKU); PKU Anamix Infant (Nutricia). This was an 8-week open-label, single-arm, pilot intervention study in 9 infants (8-week median age) diagnosed with PKU. On study entry, infants were prescribed PKU Anamix Infant to replace an infant phenylalanine-free protein substitute without prebiotics (IPS). Blood phenylalanine concentrations were monitored and stool samples analyzed for pH/bacterial groups. PKU Anamix infant was well tolerated and accepted with no adverse events reported. Overall, plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations were maintained within target ranges throughout the study (120-360 μmol/l phenylalanine, 30-100 μmol/l tyrosine). All infants exhibited microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria (median 58.97% at Week 8), although no statistically significant change from baseline was observed at study endpoint. No infants showed abnormally high levels of Clostridium histolyticum/lituseburense or potentially pathogenic enterobacteriaceae at any point during the study. A significant reduction in median stool pH versus baseline was observed at Week 4 (pH reduced from 6.79 to 5.83), but this significance was not present at Week 8 (pH = 6.61). PKU Anamix Infant maintains phenylalanine control in line with established IPS without prebiotics and maintains levels of bifidobacteria and lowers stool pH. In exclusively breast-fed infants the latter two factors have been associated with a reduced risk of infection and may be of particular importance in infants with PKU.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 09/2011; 104 Suppl:S55-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.09.015 · 2.83 Impact Factor