Hill ID, Dirks MH, Liptak GS, et al. Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease in children: recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Flourtown, PA 19031, USA.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.63). 02/2005; 40(1):1-19. DOI: 10.1097/00005176-200501000-00001
Source: PubMed


Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy caused by a permanent sensitivity to gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. It occurs in children and adolescents with gastrointestinal symptoms, dermatitis herpetiformis, dental enamel defects, osteoporosis, short stature, delayed puberty and persistent iron deficiency anemia and in asymptomatic individuals with type 1 diabetes, Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, Williams syndrome, selective immunoglobulin (Ig)A deficiency and first degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease. The Celiac Disease Guideline Committee of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition has formulated a clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric celiac disease based on an integration of a systematic review of the medical literature combined with expert opinion. The Committee examined the indications for testing, the value of serological tests, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing and histopathology and the treatment and monitoring of children with celiac disease. It is recommended that children and adolescents with symptoms of celiac disease or an increased risk for celiac disease have a blood test for antibody to tissue transglutaminase (TTG), that those with an elevated TTG be referred to a pediatric gastroenterologist for an intestinal biopsy and that those with the characteristics of celiac disease on intestinal histopathology be treated with a strict gluten-free diet. This document represents the official recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition on the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease in children and adolescents.

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    • "This condition leads the patients to an inflammatory enteropathy, with villous atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, crypt hyperplasia, and an inflammatory infiltrate in the adjacent connective tissue, associated with an increase of intraepithelial lymphocytes [2]. A considerable increase in the prevalence of CD has been recorded, ranging from 1 : 85 to 1 : 300 according to the considered geographic area [3], probably due to the wheatconsuming affluent societies of the western world and to the improved reliability of serological tests (measurement of antitransglutaminase antibodies tTG and antiendomysium antibodies EMA) recorded in the recent decades. "
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    ABSTRACT: Patients involved on coeliac disease (CD) have atypical symptoms and often remain undiagnosed. Specific oral manifestations are effective risk indicators of CD and for this reason an early diagnosis with a consequent better prognosis can be performed by the dentist. There are not researches analysing the frequency of these oral manifestations in potential coeliac patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the oral hard and soft tissue lesions in potential and ascertained coeliac children in comparison with healthy controls. 50 ascertained children, 21 potential coeliac patients, and 54 controls were recruited and the oral examination was performed. The overall oral lesions were more frequently present in CD patients than in controls. The prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions was 62% in ascertained coeliac, 76.2% in potential coeliac patients, and 12.96% in controls (P < 0.05). Clinical dental delayed eruption was observed in 38% of the ascertained coeliac and 42.5% of the potential coeliac versus 11.11% of the controls (P < 0.05). The prevalence of specific enamel defects (SED) was 48% in ascertained coeliac and 19% in potential coeliac versus 0% in controls (P < 0.05; OR = 3.923). The SED seem to be genetically related to the histological damage and villous atrophy.
    Gastroenterology Research and Practice 08/2014; 2014:934159. DOI:10.1155/2014/934159 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    • "[1]. The typical clinical presentation of ‘classical’ CD includes poor linear growth and nutritional status, abdominal pain and distension, diarrhoea and iron deficiency anaemia [2]. Adherence to a lifelong gluten free diet (GFD) is the sole mainstream management approach for CD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The consequences of subclinical coeliac disease (CD) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remain unclear. We looked at growth, anthropometry and disease management in children with dual diagnosis (T1DM + CD) before and after CD diagnosis. Methods Anthropometry, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and IgA tissue transglutaminase (tTg) were collected prior to, and following CD diagnosis in 23 children with T1DM + CD. This group was matched for demographics, T1DM duration, age at CD diagnosis and at T1DM onset with 23 CD and 44 T1DM controls. Results No differences in growth or anthropometry were found between children with T1DM + CD and controls at any time point. Children with T1DM + CD, had higher BMI z-score two years prior to, than at CD diagnosis (p < 0.001). BMI z-score change one year prior to CD diagnosis was lower in the T1DM + CD than the T1DM group (p = 0.009). At two years, height velocity and change in BMI z-scores were similar in all groups. No differences were observed in HbA1c between the T1DM + CD and T1DM groups before or after CD diagnosis. More children with T1DM + CD had raised tTg levels one year after CD diagnosis than CD controls (CDx to CDx + 1 yr; T1DM + CD: 100% to 71%, p = 0.180 and CD: 100% to 45%, p < 0.001); by two years there was no difference. Conclusions No major nutrition or growth deficits were observed in children with T1DM + CD. CD diagnosis does not impact on T1DM glycaemic control. CD specific serology was comparable to children with single CD, but those with dual diagnosis may need more time to adjust to gluten free diet.
    BMC Gastroenterology 05/2014; 14(1):99. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-14-99 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    • "There is also strong evidence for an association between DS and CD, with prevalence between 5% and 12% [15]. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are the most frequent autoimmune disorder coexisting with this syndrome, and most of the affected patients (varying from 3 to 28%) display detectable circulating thyroid-specific autoantibodies [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background A higher prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) has been reported in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), though coexistence with other autoimmune diseases has not been evaluated. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of the more frequent autoimmune diseases and organ- and non-organ specific autoantibodies in WBS. Methods We longitudinally analysed 46 WBS patients to evaluate the prevalence and co-occurrence of the major autoantibodies and HLA typing for CD diagnosis. These data were compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls and Down (DS) and Turner (TS) syndrome patients. Results CD was diagnosed in one (2.2%) WBS patient; this differed significantly from DS and TS (respectively, 10.5% and 9.4%; P < 0.005) but not from healthy controls (0.6%; P = NS). However, no patients with WBS showed anti-thyroid antibodies or other organ- and non-organ specific autoantibodies, which differed significantly from DS (respectively, 10.5% and 7.0%; P < 0.005) and TS (respectively, 9.4% and 9.3%; P < 0.005) patients but not from healthy controls (1.1% and 2.3%). The frequencies of CD-specific HLA-DQ heterodimers were not significantly higher than controls, even though the WBS patients more frequently carried the DQA1*0505 allele (57% vs. 39%; P < 0.05). Conclusions CD may not be more frequent in patients with WBS. In fact, no evidence of a significantly higher prevalence of other autoimmune diseases or positivity of the main organ and non-organ specific autoantibodies was found in WBS, such as showed in the healthy controls and unlike by the patients with Turner or Down syndrome. This should prompt us to better understand the occurrence of CD in WBS. Other studies or longer follow-up might be useful to clarify this issue.
    BMC Medical Genetics 05/2014; 15(1):61. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-15-61 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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