Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA mutation carriers: Role of serial sectioning in the detection of occult malignancy
ABSTRACT Women who carry deleterious mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have up to a 54% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. After childbearing, women at high risk increasingly choose bilateral risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Two recent studies of BRCA mutation carriers reported occult malignancy in 2.5% of women undergoing RRSO. This study aimed to increase this detection rate using a protocol.
In 1996, the University of California San Francisco Gynecologic Oncology Program instituted a surgical-pathologic RRSO protocol that was composed of complete removal and serial sectioning of both ovaries and fallopian tubes, peritoneal and omental biopsies, and collection of peritoneal washings for cytology. We report the pathologic findings in 67 BRCA mutation carriers according to the degree of adherence to this protocol.
Of the 67 procedures, the protocol was followed completely or partially in 41 (61%). Seven occult malignancies were discovered, four in the fallopian tube and three in the ovaries. Six of these were microscopic, and all seven (17%) were found in specimens from complete or partial protocol procedures as opposed to standard procedures (P = .026). Other variables such as age, parity, BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, or type of surgery did not alter the strong effect of protocol procedure on the cancer detection rate.
A rigorous operative and pathologic protocol for RRSO increases the detection rate of occult ovarian malignancy in BRCA mutation carriers nearly seven-fold. If confirmed, this finding will alter postoperative management because additional staging, chemotherapy, and follow-up may be necessary in affected women.
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ABSTRACT: Only 5% of breast cancers are explained by highly penetrant multisystem autosomal dominant hereditary disorders. Though another 20–30% has a familial presentation, the genetic and other etiologies are still not well understood. Genetic testing is now widely available and multiple professional societies have published guidelines for testing and management. Genetic testing trends include utilization of multi-gene panels that take advantage of next-generation sequencing as well as testing for low- and moderate-penetrance susceptibility genes. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Surgical Oncology 01/2015; 111(1). DOI:10.1002/jso.23791 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Serous ovarian carcinoma is now hypothesized to originate from fallopian tube epithelium (FTE). We investigated the FTE abnormalities in the patients with epithelial ovarian tumors. Our study included 55 cases of serous tumors (24 carcinomas, 8 borderline tumors, and 23 adenomas), 14 mucinous carcinomas, 22 endometrioid carcinomas, 5 clear cell carcinomas, and 2 malignant Brenner tumors. FTE was diagnosed by the diagnostic algorithm, which combines the data of morphology, and p53, Ki-67 immunostaining, as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, serous tubal intraepithelial lesion, p53 signature, and normal/reactive. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, serous tubal intraepithelial lesion, p53 signature, and normal/reactive were observed in 5, 3, 0, and 16 cases in serous carcinoma; 0, 3, 0, and 5 cases in serous borderline tumor; 0, 1, 1, and 21 cases in serous adenoma; 0, 0, 1, and 13 cases in mucinous carcinoma; 0, 0, 3, and 19 cases in endometrioid carcinoma; 0, 0, 0, and 5 cases in clear cell carcinoma; and 0, 1, 0, and 1 case in malignant Brenner tumor. Among tumors of serous histology and between carcinomas, FTE abnormalities differed significantly (P<0.05). Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas were only found in serous carcinoma. The incidence of secretory cell proliferation (SCP) was examined by PAX8 expression. The rate of SCP was extremely high in serous carcinoma (96%). Among tumors of serous histology and between carcinomas, an incidence of SCP differed significantly (P<0.05). Patients with SCP were significantly older (P<0.0001). Our observations were concordant with the hypothesis of serous ovarian carcinogenesis. The SCP has a meaningful association with serous ovarian cancer.International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 01/2015; 34(1):9-18. DOI:10.1097/PGP.0000000000000108 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Histopathological examination of material from prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies performed in patients at genetic risk of ovarian cancer can reveal abnormalities interpreted as possible pre-cancerous “ovarian dysplasia” and tubal precursors lesions. We sought to study the morphological features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of neoplasia-associated markers in prophylactically removed ovaries and fallopian tubes (pBSO) in comparison with a group of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) and non-cancerous controls.Study designMorphological features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of Ki-67 (for proliferation biomarker), p53 (key pathway of mullerian serous tumorogenesis), Bcl2 (anti-apoptotic), γH2AX (a double-strand breaks marker) and ALDH1 (a stem cell marker significantly associated with early-stage ovarian cancer) were blindly evaluated by two pathologists in 111 pBSO, 12 STICs and 116 non-cancerous salpingo-oophorectomies (control group) (nBSO).ResultsMorphological ovarian and tubal dysplasia scores were significantly higher in the pBSO than in controls (respectively, 8.8 vs 3.12, p < 0.0001, for ovaries and 6.54 vs 1.58, p < 0.0001 for tubes). Increased γH2AX expression was observed in the pBSO and STICs compared with the controls whereas expression patterns of Ki67, p53 and bcl2 were low to moderate in the pBSO group. STICs overexpressed Ki67 and p53 while bcl2 expression was low; Interestingly, ALDH1 expression was low in non dysplastic epithelium, high in dysplasia and constantly low in STICs.Conclusion The morphological and immunohistochemical profile of tubo-ovarian dysplasia and STICs might be consistent with progression toward neoplastic transformation in the Serous Carcinogenesis Sequence. These changes may be pre-malignant and could represent an important phase in early neoplasia. ALDH1 activation in pBSO samples and its extinction in STICs should be considered as a target for prevention.European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 10/2014; 183. DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.10.003 · 1.63 Impact Factor