Women who carry deleterious mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have up to a 54% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. After childbearing, women at high risk increasingly choose bilateral risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Two recent studies of BRCA mutation carriers reported occult malignancy in 2.5% of women undergoing RRSO. This study aimed to increase this detection rate using a protocol.
In 1996, the University of California San Francisco Gynecologic Oncology Program instituted a surgical-pathologic RRSO protocol that was composed of complete removal and serial sectioning of both ovaries and fallopian tubes, peritoneal and omental biopsies, and collection of peritoneal washings for cytology. We report the pathologic findings in 67 BRCA mutation carriers according to the degree of adherence to this protocol.
Of the 67 procedures, the protocol was followed completely or partially in 41 (61%). Seven occult malignancies were discovered, four in the fallopian tube and three in the ovaries. Six of these were microscopic, and all seven (17%) were found in specimens from complete or partial protocol procedures as opposed to standard procedures (P = .026). Other variables such as age, parity, BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, or type of surgery did not alter the strong effect of protocol procedure on the cancer detection rate.
A rigorous operative and pathologic protocol for RRSO increases the detection rate of occult ovarian malignancy in BRCA mutation carriers nearly seven-fold. If confirmed, this finding will alter postoperative management because additional staging, chemotherapy, and follow-up may be necessary in affected women.
"During systematic histopathological examination of tissues from prophylactic adnexectomies for a genetic risk, the revelation of occult tubal cancer designed as STIC (about 10%, and between 50 and nearly 100% of these cases have exhibited involvement of the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube) gave rise to the postulate of a tubal origin for ovarian cancer, and encouraged comprehensive analysis of the tubes  . Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Lesions (STILs) or Tubal Intraepithelial Lesions in Transition (TILT) described a spectrum of epithelial changes from normal appearing tubal epithelium to cytological atypia and tubal dysplasia, expressing p53  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histopathological examination of material from prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies performed in patients at genetic risk of ovarian cancer can reveal abnormalities interpreted as possible pre-cancerous “ovarian dysplasia” and tubal precursors lesions. We sought to study the morphological features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of neoplasia-associated markers in prophylactically removed ovaries and fallopian tubes (pBSO) in comparison with a group of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) and non-cancerous controls.Study designMorphological features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of Ki-67 (for proliferation biomarker), p53 (key pathway of mullerian serous tumorogenesis), Bcl2 (anti-apoptotic), γH2AX (a double-strand breaks marker) and ALDH1 (a stem cell marker significantly associated with early-stage ovarian cancer) were blindly evaluated by two pathologists in 111 pBSO, 12 STICs and 116 non-cancerous salpingo-oophorectomies (control group) (nBSO).ResultsMorphological ovarian and tubal dysplasia scores were significantly higher in the pBSO than in controls (respectively, 8.8 vs 3.12, p < 0.0001, for ovaries and 6.54 vs 1.58, p < 0.0001 for tubes). Increased γH2AX expression was observed in the pBSO and STICs compared with the controls whereas expression patterns of Ki67, p53 and bcl2 were low to moderate in the pBSO group. STICs overexpressed Ki67 and p53 while bcl2 expression was low; Interestingly, ALDH1 expression was low in non dysplastic epithelium, high in dysplasia and constantly low in STICs.Conclusion
The morphological and immunohistochemical profile of tubo-ovarian dysplasia and STICs might be consistent with progression toward neoplastic transformation in the Serous Carcinogenesis Sequence. These changes may be pre-malignant and could represent an important phase in early neoplasia. ALDH1 activation in pBSO samples and its extinction in STICs should be considered as a target for prevention.
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 10/2014; 183. DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.10.003 · 1.70 Impact Factor
"Since PSC can originate as an occult mullerian neoplasm that commonly proliferates at other peritoneal sites (Colgan et al., 2001, 2002; Cass et al., 2005; Powell et al., 2005; Finch et al., 2006; Chand et al., 2007), the pathological (histology and staining) evaluation of PSC often does not identify the original tumor site and should be augmented with detailed analysis of the patient's clinical and family history and BRCA phenotype in order to assign the final diagnosis with reasonable medical certainty (Risch et al., 2001; Piek et al., 2004; Kindelberger et al., 2007; Gilks et al., 2008). BRCA-positive families are noted to have higher cancer rates affecting the colon, prostate, pancreas and peritoneum, as well as melanoma (Struewing et al., 1997; Frank, 2001; Paley et al., 2001; Al-Hussaini et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of mesothelioma is not always straightforward, despite known immunohistochemical markers and other diagnostic techniques. One reason for the difficulty is that extrapleural tumors resembling mesothelioma may have several possible etiologies, especially in cases with no meaningful history of amphibole asbestos exposure. When the diagnosis of mesothelioma is based on histologic features alone, primary mesotheliomas may resemble various primary or metastatic cancers that have directly invaded the serosal membranes. Some of these metastatic malignancies, particularly carcinomas and sarcomas of the pleura, pericardium and peritoneum, may undergo desmoplastic reaction in the pleura, thereby mimicking mesothelioma, rather than the primary tumor. Encasement of the lung by direct spread or metastasis, termed pseudomesotheliomatous spread, occurs with several other primary cancer types, including certain late-stage tumors from genetic cancer syndromes exhibiting chromosomal instability. Although immunohistochemical staining patterns differentiate most carcinomas, lymphomas, and mestastatic sarcomas from mesotheliomas, specific genetic markers in tumor or somatic tissues have been recently identified that may also distinguish these tumor types from asbestos-related mesothelioma. A registry for genetic screening of mesothelioma cases would help lead to improvements in diagnostic criteria, prognostic accuracy and treatment efficacy, as well as improved estimates of primary mesothelioma incidence and of background rates of cancers unrelated to asbestos that might be otherwise mistaken for mesothelioma. This information would also help better define the dose-response relationships for mesothelioma and asbestos exposure, as well as other risk factors for mesothelioma and other mesenchymal or advanced metastatic tumors that may be indistinguishable by histology and staining characteristics.
Frontiers in Genetics 05/2014; 5:151. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00151
"These dysplastic and hyperplastic lesions resembled high grade serous carcinoma but without stromal invasion. These malignancies were found in the distal tube in 4–17% of females with BRCA mutations at the time of their risk-reducing surgery, 57% to 100% of which were located in the distal portion of the tubes     . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC) arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT). With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the "tubal peritoneal junction" (TPJ), undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells.
BioMed Research International 04/2014; 2014(5-6):934261. DOI:10.1155/2014/934261 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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