Negative cross-talk between Nur77 and small heterodimer partner and its role in apoptotic cell death of hepatoma cells.
ABSTRACT Nur77, an orphan nuclear receptor, has been implicated in apoptosis of a variety of cell types, including hepatocytes. The small heterodimer partner (SHP) binds and inhibits the function of many nuclear receptors. Here, we investigated cross-talk between Nur77 and SHP during anti-Fas antibody (CH11)-mediated apoptosis of hepatic cells. Expression of SHP decreased, whereas antisense SHP enhanced, the transcriptional activity of Nur77 in HepG2 cells. SHP and Nur77 were physically associated in vivo and colocalized in the nucleus. SHP decreased the transactivation function of the N-terminal domain of Nur77 that recruits coactivators. Nur77 and SHP competitively bound to cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein and the expression of coactivators, such as cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein and activating signal cointegrator-2, recovered the decreased function of Nur77 caused by SHP. Finally, SHP was differentially expressed in hepatoma cell lines in that it was not detected in the interferon-gamma (IFNgamma)/CH11-sensitive SNU354, whereas it was significantly expressed in the IFNgamma/CH11-resistant HepG2. Interestingly, a stable SNU354 cell line that expressed SHP became resistant to the IFNgamma/CH11-induced apoptosis. Together, our results suggest that SHP plays a key role in the regulation of Nur77 activation and thereby in Nur77-mediated apoptosis in the liver.
Article: Liver X receptor mediates hepatitis B virus X protein-induced lipogenesis in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) has been implicated in abnormal lipid metabolism in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatic steatosis, its underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Liver X receptor (LXR) plays an important role in regulating the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis. Here we demonstrate that LXRalpha and LXRbeta mediate HBV-associated hepatic steatosis. We have found that HBx induces the expression of LXR and its lipogenic target genes, such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and this is accompanied by the accumulation of lipid droplets. RNA interference with LXR expression decreases the amount of lipid droplets as well as the expression of the lipogenic genes, and this indicates that HBx-induced lipogenesis is LXR-dependent. LXRalpha and HBx colocalize in the nucleus and are physically associated. HBx induces the transactivation function of LXRalpha by recruiting CREB binding protein to the promoter of the target gene. Furthermore, we have observed that expression of LXR is increased in the livers of HBx-transgenic mice. Finally, there is a significant increase in the expression of LXRbeta (P = 0.036), SREBP-1c (P = 0.008), FAS, and stearoyl-coenyzme A desaturase-1 (P = 0.001) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in comparison with adjacent nontumorous nodules in human HBV-associated HCC specimens. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a novel association between HBx and LXR that may represent an important mechanism explaining HBx-induced hepatic lipogenesis during HBV-associated hepatic carcinogenesis.Hepatology 12/2008; 49(4):1122-31. · 11.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins are cell-surface signaling receptors in T cells and scavenger receptors in antigen-presenting cells and kidney tubular epithelia. Here, we demonstrated a function for TIM proteins in mediating the degradation of NUR77, a nuclear receptor implicated in apoptosis and cell survival. TIM proteins interacted with and mediated the lysosomal degradation of NUR77 in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent pathway. We also showed dynamic cycling of TIM-1 to and from the cell surface through clathrin-dependent constitutive endocytosis. Blocking this process or mutating the phosphatidylserine-binding pocket in TIM-1 abrogated TIM-1-mediated degradation of NUR77. In an in vitro model of kidney injury, silencing TIM-1 increased NUR77 abundance and decreased epithelial cell survival. These results show that TIM proteins may affect immune cell function and the response of the kidney to injury.Science Signaling 01/2012; 5(254):ra90. · 7.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Small heterodimer partner (SHP, NR0B2) is a unique orphan nuclear receptor that contains the dimerization and a putative ligand-binding domain, but lacks the conserved DNA binding domain. SHP exerts its physiological function as an inhibitor of gene transcription through physical interaction with multiple nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors. SHP is a critical transcriptional regulator affecting diverse biological functions, including bile acid, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, glucose and energy homeostasis, and reproductive biology. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that SHP is an epigenetically regulated transcriptional repressor that suppresses the development of liver cancer. In this review, we summarize recent major findings regarding the role of SHP in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA methylation, and discuss recent progress in understanding the function of SHP as a tumor suppressor in the development of liver cancer. Future study will be focused on identifying SHP associated novel pro-oncogenes and anti-oncogenes in liver cancer progression and applying the knowledge gained on SHP in liver cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment.Cancers. 01/2011;