Randomized, double-blind trial of antibiotic exit site cream for prevention of exit site infection in peritoneal dialysis patients.
ABSTRACT Infection is the Achilles heel of peritoneal dialysis. Exit site mupirocin prevents Staphylococcus aureus peritoneal dialysis (PD) infections but does not reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa or other Gram-negative infections, which are associated with considerable morbidity and sometimes death. Patients from three centers (53% incident to PD and 47% prevalent) were randomized in a double-blinded manner to daily mupirocin or gentamicin cream to the catheter exit site. Infections were tracked prospectively by organism and expressed as episodes per dialysis-year at risk. A total of 133 patients were randomized, 67 to gentamicin and 66 to mupirocin cream. Catheter infection rates were 0.23/yr with gentamicin cream versus 0.54/yr with mupirocin (P = 0.005). Time to first catheter infection was longer using gentamicin (P = 0.03). There were no P. aeruginosa catheter infections using gentamicin compared with 0.11/yr using mupirocin (P < 0.003). S. aureus exit site infections were infrequent in both groups (0.06 and 0.08/yr; P = 0.44). Peritonitis rates were 0.34/yr versus 0.52/yr (P = 0.03), with a striking decrease in Gram-negative peritonitis (0.02/yr versus 0.15/yr; P = 0.003) using gentamicin compared with mupirocin cream, respectively. Gentamicin use was a significant predictor of lower peritonitis rates (relative risk, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 0.93; P < 0.03), controlling for center and incident versus prevalent patients. Gentamicin cream applied daily to the peritoneal catheter exit site reduced P. aeruginosa and other Gram-negative catheter infections and reduced peritonitis by 35%, particularly Gram-negative organisms. Gentamicin cream was as effective as mupirocin in preventing S. aureus infections. Daily gentamicin cream at the exit site should be the prophylaxis of choice for PD patients.
Article: Consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related infections and peritonitis in pediatric patients receiving peritoneal dialysis: 2012 update.Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 06/2012; 32 Suppl 2:S32-86.
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ABSTRACT: We analyzed data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry for 1 October 2003 to 31 December 2008 with the aim of describing the nature of peritonitis, therapies, and outcomes in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Australia. At least 1 episode of PD was observed in 6639 patients. The overall peritonitis rate was 0.60 episodes per patient-year (95% confidence interval: 0.59 to 0.62 episodes), with 6229 peritonitis episodes occurring in 3136 patients. Of those episodes, 13% were culture-negative, and 11% were polymicrobial. Gram-positive organisms were isolated in 53.4% of single-organism peritonitis episodes, and gram-negative organisms, in 23.6%. Mycobacterial and fungal peritonitis episodes were rare. Initial antibiotic therapy for most peritonitis episodes used 2 agents (most commonly vancomycin and an aminoglycoside); in 77.2% of episodes, therapy was subsequently changed to a single agent. Tenckhoff catheter removal was required in 20.4% of cases at a median of 6 days, and catheter removal was more common in fungal, mycobacterial, and anaerobic infections, with a median time to removal of 4 - 5 days. Peritonitis was the cause of death in 2.6% of patients. Transfer to hemodialysis and hospitalization were frequent outcomes of peritonitis. There was no relationship between center size and peritonitis rate. The peritonitis rate in Australia between 2003 and 2008 was higher than that reported in many other countries, with a particularly higher rate of gram-negative peritonitis.Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 06/2011; 31(6):651-62.
Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 08/2011; 31(6):614-30.