Outbreaks of enteric infections caused by multiple pathogens associated with calves at a farm day camp.

Acute Disease Investigation and Control Section, Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis, MN 55014, USA.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 3.57). 01/2005; 23(12):1098-104.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Transmission of enteric pathogens at venues where the public contacts farm animals is a growing problem, particularly among children. In 2000 and again in 2001, enteric illness outbreaks caused by multiple pathogens occurred at a farm day camp for children in Minnesota.
Camp attendees were interviewed about illness history and potential exposures each year. Stool samples from children and calves at the camp were tested for enteric pathogens.
Eighty-four illnesses were documented among camp attendees in the 2 outbreaks; laboratory-confirmed infections included Cryptosporidium parvum (17 cases), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (4), non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (7) and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni (1 each). Kindergarten-fourth grade children provided 1-on-1 care for a bottle-fed calf. Sixty of 83 calves tested carried at least 1 pathogen, including Giardia spp. (26 calves), C. parvum (25), non-O157 STEC (17), Campylobacter spp. (11), 3 serotypes of Salmonella enterica (10) and E. coli O157:H7 (2). Risk factors among children included caring for an ill calf and getting visible manure on their hands. Always washing hands with soap after touching a calf and washing hands before going home were protective. Prevention measures implemented in 2000 failed to prevent the second outbreak.
Calves were the reservoir of multiple enteric pathogens for children at a farm day camp. Health care providers should consider numerous zoonotic pathogens in patients presenting with gastroenteritis after contact with cattle. Public health officials should help venue operators prospectively implement published guidelines to prevent zoonotic disease transmission.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform public policy regarding appropriate antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Salmonella isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to various antimicrobial agents over time. Data were collected retrospectively for all bovine Salmonella isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella were investigated for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 2745 bovine Salmonella isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 0% (amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid) to 72.0% (sulfadimethoxine). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to most agents: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AUG), ampicillin (AMP), cefoxitin (FOX), ceftiofur (TIO), ceftriaxone (AXO), chloramphenicol (CHL), chlortetracycline (CTET), florfenicol (FFN), kanamycin (KAN), neomycin (NEO), oxytetracycline (OXY), spectinomycin (SPE), streptomycin (STR), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), sulfisoxazole (FIS), and tetracycline (TET). Among the 265 isolates that were tested using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel, the most common resistance patterns were pansusceptible (54.0%), AUG-AMP-FOX-TIO-AXO-CHL-KAN-STR-FIS-TET (18.1%), and AUG-AMP-FOX-TIO-AXO-CHL-STR-FIS-TET (12.1%). Increasing prevalence of S. enterica serovar Cerro over the course of the study period presumably had an impact on the observed resistance trends. Nevertheless, these results do not support the notion that the current level of antimicrobial use in dairy cattle is driving an increase in the emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant Salmonella in the region served by the laboratory.
    Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 03/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Shiga toxin--producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a leading cause of bacterial enteric infections in the United States. Prompt, accurate diagnosis of STEC infection is important because appropriate treatment early in the course of infection might decrease the risk for serious complications such as renal damage and improve overall patient outcome. In addition, prompt laboratory identification of STEC strains is essential for detecting new and emerging serotypes, for effective and timely outbreak responses and control measures, and for monitoring trends in disease epidemiology. Guidelines for laboratory identification of STEC infections by clinical laboratories were published in 2006. This report provides comprehensive and detailed recommendations for STEC testing by clinical laboratories, including the recommendation that all stools submitted for routine testing from patients with acute community-acquired diarrhea (regardless of patient age, season of the year, or presence or absence of blood in the stool) be simultaneously cultured for E. coli O157:H7 (O157 STEC) and tested with an assay that detects Shiga toxins to detect non-O157 STEC. The report also includes detailed procedures for specimen selection, handling, and transport; a review of culture and nonculture tests for STEC detection; and clinical considerations and recommendations for management of patients with STEC infection. Improving the diagnostic accuracy of STEC infection by clinical laboratories should ensure prompt diagnosis and treatment of these infections in patients and increase detection of STEC outbreaks in the community.
    MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 10/2009; 58(RR-12):1-14.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10,000 to > 40,000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86-88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86-90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85-88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66-71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58-70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67-72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta.
    Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire 10/2009; 73(4):275-82. · 1.19 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014