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Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances. J Nutr Biochem

Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1742, USA.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.59). 02/2005; 16(1):23-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2004.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although the avocado is known as a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, there has been far less attention given to its content of other bioactive substances including carotenoids, which might contribute to cancer preventive properties similar to those attributed to other fruits and vegetables. The yellow-green color of the avocado prompted us to study the carotenoid content of this fruit using established methods in our laboratory. The California Hass avocado (Persea americana Mill.) was selected for study, because it is the most commonly consumed variety in the southwest United States. These avocados were found to contain the highest content of lutein among commonly eaten fruits as well as measurable amounts of related carotenoids (zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene). Lutein accounted for 70% of the measured carotenoids, and the avocado also contained significant quantities of vitamin E. An acetone extract of avocado containing these carotenoids and tocopherols was shown to inhibit the growth of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3) prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Incubation of PC-3 cells with the avocado extract led to G(2)/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in p27 protein expression. Lutein alone did not reproduce the effects of the avocado extract on cancer cell proliferation. In common with other colorful fruits and vegetables, the avocado contains numerous bioactive carotenoids. Because the avocado also contains a significant amount of monounsaturated fat, these bioactive carotenoids are likely to be absorbed into the bloodstream, where in combination with other diet-derived phytochemicals they may contribute to the significant cancer risk reduction associated with a diet of fruits and vegetables.

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    • "Avocados are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, folic acid, dietary fiber, vitamins, pantothenic acid, and other nutrients [1]. Lipophilic extract of avocado has been revealed be potent in lowering risk of cardiovascular and diabetes, attenuating liver injury, inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, and inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells [2] [3] [4] [5]. The consumption of avocado in United States has increased in recent years, and it amounted up to 740,000 t in 2013. "
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    Analytica Chimica Acta 12/2014; 852. DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2014.09.022 · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    • "In medicinal usage, avocado has been applied in stimulating hair growth, wound healing, treating dysentery and diarrhoea as well as an emmenagogue and aphrodisiac(DerMarderosian and Beutler, 2002). Avocado fruit extracts have been reported to possess anticancer, antifungal and antioxidant activities (Domergue et al., 2000; Lu et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2010). Recent study has shown that addition of avocado oil in burger patties gave the highest oxidative stability compared to olive and sunflower oils, thus leading to possibility of manufacturing food products with enhanced nutritional properties (Rodríguez-Carpena et al., 2012). "
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    • "There are no direct avocado breast cancer clinical studies. Exploratory studies in prostate cancer cell lines suggest antiproliferative and antitumor effects of avocado lipid extracts (Lu et al., 2005). Lutein is one of the active components identified. "
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