Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances.

Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1742, USA.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.59). 02/2005; 16(1):23-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2004.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although the avocado is known as a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, there has been far less attention given to its content of other bioactive substances including carotenoids, which might contribute to cancer preventive properties similar to those attributed to other fruits and vegetables. The yellow-green color of the avocado prompted us to study the carotenoid content of this fruit using established methods in our laboratory. The California Hass avocado (Persea americana Mill.) was selected for study, because it is the most commonly consumed variety in the southwest United States. These avocados were found to contain the highest content of lutein among commonly eaten fruits as well as measurable amounts of related carotenoids (zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene). Lutein accounted for 70% of the measured carotenoids, and the avocado also contained significant quantities of vitamin E. An acetone extract of avocado containing these carotenoids and tocopherols was shown to inhibit the growth of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3) prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Incubation of PC-3 cells with the avocado extract led to G(2)/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in p27 protein expression. Lutein alone did not reproduce the effects of the avocado extract on cancer cell proliferation. In common with other colorful fruits and vegetables, the avocado contains numerous bioactive carotenoids. Because the avocado also contains a significant amount of monounsaturated fat, these bioactive carotenoids are likely to be absorbed into the bloodstream, where in combination with other diet-derived phytochemicals they may contribute to the significant cancer risk reduction associated with a diet of fruits and vegetables.

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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluate the effect of ultrasonic application in the extraction process on total phenolic content (TPC) of Hass avocado (Persea americana Mill) pulp. In this study, the solid/solvent ratio of 1/30 (wt/vol) and extraction temperature of 40°C gave higher TPC value. This ratio and temperature was applied in the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of avocado pulp. This study then compared the TPC obtained from the avocado pulp extract without involving ultrasonic and the TPC obtained from the UAE. Results showed that the TPC value of avocado pulp was significantly higher in the UAE (235.77 mg GAE/100g dried sample) compared to the TPC in the non-UAE (166.32 mg GAE/100g dried sample). The increase in the TPC was between ~31% and ~41% when 5 to 20 min of ultrasonication applied in the extraction. Ultrasonication duration of 15 min gave the highest TPC where the value was significantly higher compared to the other duration.
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