Improved methods for extracting RNA from exfoliated human colonocytes in stool and RT-PCR analysis.
ABSTRACT In order to diagnose colon cancer at an earlier, more localized stage, there is a need to develop diagnostic markers (genes) which can detect early patterns of gene expression in exfoliated colonocytes shed in the stool during routine screening for this disease. An RNA-based detection is more pertinent than either a DNA-based or a protein-based method as a screening procedure, but it has not been widely used as a cancer screen because of the difficulty of handling and stabilizing the RNA molecule. We describe a method that permits extraction of intact nondegraded total RNA from human colonocytes in stool and from normal and malignant colon tissues (which were employed for comparison with stool). Because it utilizes commercially available kits, this method is simpler than other published methods and does not require isolation of messenger (m)RNA, thereby reducing the chances of contaminating the preparations with degrading nucleases, and even a small amount of isolated total RNA can be adequately reverse transcribed, making high-quality copy (c) DNA. This is followed by PCR (either qualitative end point or semiquantitative real-time) using colon cancer-specific gene primers. By routinely and systematically being able to perform quantitative gene expression measurements on noninvasive samples, the goal of this pilot work is to lay the groundwork for conducting a large clinical study to identify groups of selected genes whose expression is consistently altered at an early stage in the neoplastic process. Such work will permit noninvasive monitoring of at-risk patients through the analysis of their stool samples. Correct diagnosis will allow for surgical and/or other interventions before the tumor is well established and, thus, should decrease mortality from this preventable disease.
- SourceAvailable from: Björn L.D.M. Brücher
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- "They showed that RNA can be adequately reverse transcribed, making high-quality copy cDNA. This was followed by PCR using colon cancer-specific gene primers (guanylyl cyclase C and PYPAF5 genes).37 "
ABSTRACT: The discovery of microRNA, a group of regulatory short RNA fragments, has added a new dimension to the diagnosis and management of neoplastic diseases. Differential expression of microRNA in a unique pattern in a wide range of tumor types enables researches to develop a microRNA-based assay for source identification of metastatic disease of unknown origin. This is just one example of many microRNA-based cancer diagnostic and prognostic assays in various phases of clinical research. Since colorectal cancer (CRC) is a phenotypic expression of multiple molecular pathways including chromosomal instability (CIN), micro-satellite instability (MIS) and CpG islands promoter hypermethylation (CIMP), there is no one-unique pattern of microRNA expression expected in this disease and indeed, there are multiple reports published, describing different patterns of microRNA expression in CRC. The scope of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the scientific literature describing the dysregulation of and the potential role for microRNA in the management of CRC. A Pubmed search was conducted using the following MeSH terms, "microRNA" and "colorectal cancer". Of the 493 publications screened, there were 57 papers describing dysregulation of microRNA in CRC.Journal of Cancer 03/2013; 4(3):281-95. DOI:10.7150/jca.5836 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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- "Supernatant was filtered with 0.2 µm filter, lyophilized, and stored at −20 °C until used. Before using in ELISA, lyophilized stool was dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in one-third of the starting volume (27). Cathelicidin LL-37 was measured in stool by ELISA as described earlier (28). "
ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial peptides represent an important component of the innate immune defenses of living organisms, including humans. They are broad-spectrum surface-acting agents secreted by the epithelial cells of the body in response to infection. Recently, L-isoleucine and its analogues have been found to induce antimicrobial peptides. The objectives of the study were to examine if addition of L-isoleucine to oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution would reduce stool output and/or duration of acute diarrhoea in children and induce antimicrobial peptides in intestine. This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B. Fifty male children, aged 6-36 months, with acute diarrhoea and some dehydration, attending the hospital, were included in the study. Twenty-five children received L-isoleucine (2 g/L)-added ORS (study), and 25 received ORS without L-isoleucine (control). Stool weight, ORS intake, and duration of diarrhoea were the primary outcomes. There was a trend in reduction in mean +/- standard deviation (SD) daily stool output (g) of children in the L-isoleucine group from day 2 but it was significant on day 3 (388 +/- 261 vs. 653 +/- 446; the difference between mean [95% confidence interval (CI) (-)265 (-509, -20); p = 0.035]. Although the cumulative stool output from day 1 to day 3 reduced by 26% in the isoleucine group, it was not significant. Also, there was a trend in reduction in the mean +/- SD intake of ORS solution (mL) in the L-isoleucine group but it was significant only on day 1 (410 +/- 169 vs. 564 +/- 301), the difference between mean (95% CI) (-)154 (-288, -18); p = 0.04. The duration (hours) of diarrhoea was similar in both the groups. A gradual increase in stool concentrations of beta-defensin 2 and 3 was noted but they were not significantly different between the groups. L-isoleucine-supplemented ORS might be beneficial in reducing stool output and ORS intake in children with acute watery diarrhoea. A further study is warranted to substantiate the therapeutic effect of L-isoleucine.Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 06/2011; 29(3):183-90. DOI:10.3329/jhpn.v29i3.7864 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Establishing test performance criteria for a transcriptomic colon cancer marker approach must be carried out in a standardized fashion in order tso ensure that the test will perform the same way in any laboratory, anywhere. Condition of sample preservation and shipping prior to total RNA extraction is critical, and we recommend preserving stool samples in an appropriate preservative and shipping them in cold packs so as to keep stools at 4 degrees C. It is not necessary to isolate colonocytes to obtain adequate RNA for testing. It is, however, important to obtain samples from both mucin-rich and non-mucin rich to have a good representation of both left- and right-side colon cancers. Employing a commercial total RNA extraction kit that contains an RLT buffer from Qiagen Corporation (Valencia, CA, USA) removes bacterial RNA from stool preparations and results in a high yield of undegraded RNA of human origin. Genes selected based on the enormous resources of NCI's Cancer Genome Anatomy project give good results. Primers for PCR should span more than one exon. Use of semiquantitative PCR, preferably with several reference housekeeping genes of various copy numbers, depending on tested genes, should enhance confidence in the quantitative results. Having standardized the testing conditions in our ongoing work, it is now imperative that a larger prospective randomized clinical study utilizing stool and tissue samples derived from several control and colon cancer patients, to allow for statistically valid analyses, be conducted in order to determine the true sensitivity and specificity of the transcriptomic screening approach for this cancer whose incidence is on the rise worldwide.Cancer genomics & proteomics 4(6):419-31. · 2.70 Impact Factor