Article

Fitness versus physical activity patterns in predicting mortality in men

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States
The American Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.3). 12/2004; 117(12):912-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.06.047
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To compare the contributions of fitness level and physical activity patterns to all-cause mortality.
Of 6213 men referred for exercise testing between 1987 and 2000, 842 underwent an assessment of adulthood activity patterns. The predictive power of exercise capacity and activity patterns, along with clinical and exercise test data, were assessed for all-cause mortality during a mean (+/-SD) follow-up of 5.5 +/- 2 years.
Expressing the data by age-adjusted quartiles, exercise capacity was a stronger predictor of mortality than was activity pattern (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38 to 0.83; P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis that considered clinical characteristics, risk factors, exercise test data, and activity patterns, exercise capacity (HR per quartile = 0.62; CI: 0.47 to 0.82; P < 0.001) and energy expenditure from adulthood recreational activity (HR per quartile = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58 to 0.89; P = 0.002) were the only significant predictors of mortality; these two variables were stronger predictors than established risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. Age-adjusted mortality decreased per quartile increase in exercise capacity (HR for very low capacity = 1.0; HR for low = 0.59; HR for moderate = 0.46; HR for high = 0.28; P < 0.001) and physical activity (HR for very low activity = 1.0; HR for low = 0.63; HR for moderate = 0.42; HR for high = 0.38; P < 0.001). A 1000-kcal/wk increase in activity was approximately similar to a 1 metabolic equivalent increase in fitness; both conferred a mortality benefit of 20%.
Exercise capacity determined from exercise testing and energy expenditure from weekly activity outperform other clinical and exercise test variables in predicting all-cause mortality.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Scott A Lear, Aug 25, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
177 Views
    • "While sport organizations have long acknowledged their ability in delivering social outcomes including improved physical health (Myers et al., 2004), enhanced education (Lambourne, 2006) and social inclusion (Jarvie, 2003), the concept of CSR has grown rapidly in significance across the professional sport industry. This is increasingly the case in professional football with a growing number of football organizations formulating partnerships with local, commercial and social actors as they seek to engage effectively with a range of stakeholders. "
    Corporate Governance International Journal of Business in Society 04/2015; 15(2):177-195. DOI:10.1108/CG-05-2014-0062
  • Source
    • "On the other hand, physical activity has important consequences to the health [1] [2] [3]. Investigations have shown a strong inverse relationship between physical activity, as habitual exercise, and the risk of coronary disease, cardiac events, and cardiovascular death prevention [1] [4] [5]. Moreover, authors [6] [7] have suggested that exercise may provide some protection against breast, intestinal, prostate, endometrial, and pancreatic cancer. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life.WBV exercises relevantly increase themuscle strength,muscle power, and the bone mineral density, aswell as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol usingWBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS.
    09/2014; 2014:1-10. DOI:10.1155/2014/628518
  • Source
    • "Over 2,500 year ago, Hippocrates noted the potential health benefits of daily exercise of moderate intensity such as a simple walk. In the last six decades, and since the landmark work by Morris and coworkers [1], the plethora of epidemiologic evidence accumulated supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality in apparently healthy individuals [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] and in patients with documented cardiovascular disease [9]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates
    10/2012; 2012:718789. DOI:10.5402/2012/718789
Show more