Classical pathway complement activity in schizophrenia
ABSTRACT There is considerable evidence to suggest a role for complement in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but the data related to the classical pathway complement activity in patients with schizophrenia are conflicting. In the present study, the total hemolytic activity of the complement and the activities of individual complement components, C1, C2, C3 and C4, were determined in the blood serum of schizophrenic patients with positive family history of the disease and healthy subjects. In comparison to the healthy subjects, the mean values of the hemolytic activities of the C1, C3 and C4 complement components in the serum of the schizophrenic patients were significantly higher, and the mean value of the hemolytic activity of the C2 complement component was significantly lower. However, no significant difference was found between the mean values of the total hemolytic activity of complement in schizophrenic patients and healthy subjects. The C3 hemolytic activity was 2.17 times higher in medicated patients than in drug-free patients. Within each group examined no significant difference was found between smokers and non-smokers or between males and females. The results of this study suggest that the pathogenesis of schizophrenia is associated with alterations in activities of complement classical pathway components.
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have indicated that both maternal bacterial and viral infections during pregnancy increase the risk of schizophrenia among offspring, but to date there is not clear explanation for this increased risk. Previously, the decreased C4b-binding protein (C4BP), a potent circulating soluble inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, was reported to be associated with risk of schizophrenia. Here, we analyzed 4 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C4BPB and 5 SNPs of C4BPA in a group of 556 schizophrenia patients and a matched group of 610 healthy controls to see if the genes C4BPB and C4BPA, which encode C4BP, may confer a susceptibility to schizophrenia. Comparing the genotype and allele frequencies of those SNPs between cases and controls, we found no association between the C4BPB/C4BPA variants and schizophrenia. Our results provided preliminary evidence that C4BPB/C4BPA may not confer susceptibility to schizophrenia among Han Chinese. Further genetic studies from large-scale population are required to obtain more conclusive results. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Neuroscience Letters 02/2015; 590. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2015.02.005 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present work the concentration of abnormal immune complexes, cryoglobulins (Cgs), in the blood of schizophrenic patients was determined, and immunochemical composition of these complexes was studied. Eighty multiple-episode schizophrenia-affected subjects (55 medicated, 25 drug-free) and 40 healthy controls were involved in the study. Cgs were isolated by exposure of blood serum samples to precipitation at low temperature followed by extensive washings of Cg-enriched pellets. The immunochemical composition of Cgs was analyzed using different electrophoretic and immunoblotting systems. Significantly increased blood serum levels of type III Cgs were detected in all schizophrenia-affected subjects, as compared to controls. We also revealed the presence of C1q and C3 complement proteins and their activation products in Cgs isolated from the blood of schizophrenic patients. The results of the present study suggest that Cgs are involved in schizophrenia-associated upregulated immune response by binding the complement proteins, activating the complement cascade and triggering aberrant apoptosis.Clinical Biochemistry 05/2008; 41(6):355-60. DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2007.11.014 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The advantages of atypical vs. typical neuroleptics have been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. Differences in functional pathways affected by typical and atypical antipsychotics in the brain have been assessed using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Data on gene expression, obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus, is a numerical array of size ~4x17000, which can be treated directly neither by statistical approach nor by means of classification and pattern recognition regular theory. Extended logic-combinatorial scheme is designed for the treatment of this kind data set. Applied results show that atypical neuroleptics have less effect on pathways related to neurodegeneration, cognition, neuronal architectonics, as well as stimulation of inflammatory processes.