Article

An unusual fold for potassium channel blockers: NMR structure of three toxins from the scorpion Opisthacanthus madagascariensis.

Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098, CNRS et Universités d'Aix-Marseille I et II, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France.
Biochemical Journal (Impact Factor: 4.65). 06/2005; 388(Pt 1):263-71. DOI: 10.1042/BJ20041705
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Om-toxins are short peptides (23-27 amino acids) purified from the venom of the scorpion Opisthacanthus madagascariensis. Their pharmacological targets are thought to be potassium channels. Like Csalpha/beta (cystine-stabilized alpha/beta) toxins, the Om-toxins alter the electrophysiological properties of these channels; however, they do not share any sequence similarity with other scorpion toxins. We herein demonstrate by electrophysiological experiments that Om-toxins decrease the amplitude of the K+ current of the rat channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.2, as well as human Kv1.3. We also determine the solution structure of three of the toxins by use of two-dimensional proton NMR techniques followed by distance geometry and molecular dynamics. The structures of these three peptides display an uncommon fold for ion-channel blockers, Csalpha/alpha (cystine-stabilized alpha-helix-loop-helix), i.e. two alpha-helices connected by a loop and stabilized by two disulphide bridges. We compare the structures obtained and the dipole moments resulting from the electrostatic anisotropy of these peptides with those of the only other toxin known to share the same fold, namely kappa-hefutoxin1.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
49 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new peptide with 61 amino acids cross-linked by 4 disulfide bridges, with molecular weight of 6938.12Da, and an amidated C-terminal amino acid residue was purified and characterized. The primary structure was obtained by direct Edman degradation and sequencing its gene. The peptide is lethal to mammals and was shown to be similar (95% identity) to toxin Ts1 (gamma toxin) from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus; it was named Tt1g (from T. trivittatus toxin 1 gamma-like). Tt1g was assayed on several sub-types of Na(+)-channels showing displacement of the currents to more negative voltages, being the hNav1.3 the most affected channel. This toxin displays characteristics typical to the β-type sodium scorpion toxins. Lethality tests and physiological assays indicate that this peptide is probably the most important toxic component of this species of scorpion, known for causing human fatalities in the South American continent.
    Peptides 05/2014; · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prediction and analysis of the three- dimensional (3D) structure of proteins is a key research problem in Structural Bioinformatics. The 1990’s Genome Projects resulted in a large increase in the number of available protein sequences. However, the number of identified 3D protein structures have not followed the same growth trend. Currently, the number of available protein sequences greatly exceeds the number of known 3D structures. Many computational methodologies, systems and algorithms have been proposed to address the protein structure prediction problem. However, the problem still remains challenging because of the complexity and high dimensionality of a protein conformational search space. The most significant progress in the last Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction was achieved by methods that use database information. Nevertheless, a major challenge remains in the development of better strategies for template identification and representation. This article describes a computational strategy to acquire and represent structural information of experimentally determined 3D protein structures. A clustering strategy was combined with artificial neural networks in order to extract structural information from experimental protein structure templates. In the proposed strategy, the main efforts focus on the acquisition of useful and accurate structural information from 3D protein templates stored in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The proposed method was tested in twenty protein sequences whose sizes vary from 14 to 70 amino acid residues. Our results show that the proposed method is a good way to extract and represent valuable information obtained from the PDB and also significantly reduce the 3D protein conformational search space.
    Soft Computing 01/2014; · 1.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The number and types of venom components that affect ion-channel function are reviewed. These are the most important venom components responsible for human intoxication, deserving medical attention, often requiring the use of specific anti-venoms. Special emphasis is given to peptides that recognize Na(+)-, K(+)- and Ca(++)-channels of excitable cells. Knowledge generated by direct isolation of peptides from venom and components deduced from cloned genes, whose amino acid sequences are deposited into databanks are now adays in the order of 1.5 thousands, out of an estimate biodiversity closed to 300,000. Here the diversity of components is briefly reviewed with mention to specific references. Structural characteristic are discussed with examples taken from published work. The principal mechanisms of action of the three different types of peptides are also reviewed. Na(+)-channel specific venom components usually are modifier of the open and closing kinetic mechanisms of the ion-channels, whereas peptides affecting K(+)-channels are normally pore blocking agents. The Ryanodine Ca(++)-channel specific peptides are known for causing sub-conducting stages of the channels conductance and some were shown to be able to internalize penetrating inside the muscle cells.
    Toxicon 07/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
0 Downloads
Available from