Dual Infection of Infants by Human Metapneumovirus and Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Is Strongly Associated with Severe Bronchiolitis

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 02/2005; 191(3):382-6. DOI: 10.1086/426457
Source: PubMed


The association between severe bronchiolitis and dual infection by human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) was investigated in <2-year-old infants with bronchiolitis who were admitted to the hospital during the 2001-2002 winter season. hMPV in nasopharyngeal aspirate and/or cells and fluid collected by nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). hRSV was detected in nasopharyngeal aspirate and/or cells and fluid collected by nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage by enzyme immunoassay, tissue culture, and RT-PCR. Dual infection with hMPV and hRSV confers a 10-fold increase in relative risk (RR) of admission to a pediatric intensive-care unit for mechanical ventilation (RR, 10.99 [95% confidence interval, 5.0-24.12]; P<.001, by Fisher exact test). Dual infection by hMPV and hRSV is associated with severe bronchiolitis.

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    • "With the advent of highly sensitive molecular diagnostic methods, reports of codetection of multiple respiratory viruses in the same sample have become increasingly frequent [Greensill et al., 2003; Wolf et al., 2006; Paranhos-Baccalà et al., 2008; Gagliardi et al., 2009]. However, the implications of the simultaneous detection of other respiratory viruses in children with HRSV-attributable disease have not been fully clarified [Semple et al., 2005; García-García et al., 2006]. The vast majority of clinical studies concerning this question have attributed " HRSV-positivity " to nucleic acid "
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    ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of respiratory disease. The majority of studies addressing the importance of virus co-infections to the HRSV-disease have been based on the detection of HRSV by RT-PCR, which may not distinguish current replication from prolonged shedding of remnant RNA from previous HRSV infections. To assess whether co-detections of other common respiratory viruses are associated with increased severity of HRSV illnesses from patients who were shedding viable-HRSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates from children younger than 5 years who sought medical care for respiratory infections in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil) were tested for HRSV by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture. All samples with viable-HRSV were tested further by PCR for other respiratory viruses. HRSV-disease severity was assessed by a clinical score scale. A total of 266 samples from 247 children were collected and 111 (42%) were HRSV-positive. HRSV was isolated from 70 (63%), and 52 (74%) of them were positive for at least one additional virus. HRSV-positive diseases were more severe than HRSV-negative ones, but there was no difference in disease severity between patients with viable-HRSV and those HRSV-positives by RT-PCR. Co-detection of other viruses did not correlate with increased disease severity. HRSV isolation in cell culture does not seem to be superior to RT-PCR to distinguish infections associated with HRSV replication in studies of clinical impact of HRSV. A high rate of co-detection of other respiratory viruses was found in samples with viable-HRSV, but this was not associated with more severe HRSV infection. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 10/2013; 85(10). DOI:10.1002/jmv.23648 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    • "The effect of dual infection may depend upon which viruses co-infect together. For example , although there was no increase in severity when HRV and/or AdV were detected during RSV infection, co-infection with both HMPV and RSV increased the rate of intensive care unit admissions (Aberle et al., 2005; Semple et al., 2005). Thus, although dual infections and reinfections have been well documented in children, chronic infection with the development of quasispecies cannot be ruled out without obtaining more complete data using high performance detection methods (Hall and McCarthy, 1996). "
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    ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 09/2013; 4:278. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00278 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "The clinical significance of the co-incidence of respiratory viruses has not been clearly determined. In infants with bronchiolitis, dual viral infection was a risk factor for ICU admission and co-infection with human metapneumovirus and RSV was strongly associated with disease severity [16], [17]. Additionally, viral co-infections were related to an increased probability for hospitalization in children with respiratory infection [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A well-constructed and properly operating influenza surveillance scheme is essential for public health. This study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of respiratory viruses in patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) through the first teaching hospital-based surveillance scheme for ILI in South Korea. Respiratory specimens were obtained from adult patients (≥18 years) who visited the emergency department (ED) with ILI from week 40, 2011 to week 22, 2012. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect respiratory viruses: influenza virus, adenovirus, coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, bocavirus, and enterovirus. Among 1,983 patients who visited the ED with ILI, 811 (40.9%) were male. The median age of patients was 43 years. Influenza vaccination rate was 21.7% (430/1,983) during the 2011-2012 season. At least one comorbidity was found in 18% of patients. The positive rate of respiratory viruses was 52.1% (1,033/1,983) and the total number of detected viruses was 1,100. Influenza A virus was the dominant agent (677, 61.5%) in all age groups. The prevalence of human metapneumovirus was higher in patients more than 50 years old, while adenovirus was detected only in younger adults. In 58 (5.6%) cases, two or more respiratory viruses were detected. The co-incidence case was identified more frequently in patients with hematologic malignancy or organ transplantation recipients, however it was not related to clinical outcomes. This study is valuable as the first extensive laboratory surveillance of the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in ILI patients through a teaching hospital-based influenza surveillance system in South Korea.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64295. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064295 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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