Contribution of HIV-1 infection to acquisition of sexually transmitted disease: A 10-year prospective study
ABSTRACT Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 susceptibility, but few studies have examined the reciprocal effect of HIV-1 on STD acquisition.
Data from a prospective cohort study conducted among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya between 1993 and 2003 were used to determine the effect of HIV-1 infection on STD susceptibility. The cohort included 1215 HIV-1-seronegative women who underwent monthly HIV-1 and STD screening, of whom 238 experienced seroconversion to HIV-1 during follow-up. Andersen-Gill proportional-hazards models were used to compare the incidence rates for genital-tract infections (syphilis, genital ulcer disease [GUD], Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, Trichomonas vaginalis infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis) in HIV-1-seropositive versus HIV-1-seronegative women, after controlling for sexual behavior and other potential confounding factors.
HIV-1 infection was associated with a significantly higher incidence of GUD (hazard ratio [HR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-3.9), gonorrhea (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2), and vulvovaginal candidiasis (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8). The risks of GUD and vulvovaginal candidiasis increased with progressive levels of immunosuppression.
The increased incidence of genital-tract infections among HIV-1-seropositive women could promote the spread of both HIV-1 and other STDs, particularly in areas where these conditions are highly prevalent.
Article: Strategies for global HIV prevention[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite significant advances in the development of therapeutic strategies for HIV over the past 25 years, the AIDS pandemic continues to grow worldwide. Access to life-saving medicines is not universal and there is a critical need for better prevention strategies. This review will highlight current research in the area of HIV prevention strategies, including preventive HIV vaccines, effective microbicides, treatment of sexually transmitted infections and the impact on HIV transmission, in addition to the role of male circumcision and pre-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral medications in HIV prevention.Future Virology 11/2006; 1(6):759-767. DOI:10.2217/174607184.108.40.2069 · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:20. DOI:10.1155/2014/350195 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Effective family planning with modern contraception is an important intervention to prevent unintended pregnancies which also provides personal, familial, and societal benefits. Contraception is also the most cost-effective strategy to reduce the burden of mother-to-child HIV transmission for women living with HIV who wish to prevent pregnancy. There are concerns, however, that certain contraceptive methods, in particular the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), may increase a woman's risk of acquiring HIV or transmitting it to uninfected males. These concerns, if confirmed, could potentially have large public health implications. This paper briefly reviews the literature on use of contraception among women living with HIV or at high risk of HIV infection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations place no restrictions on the use of hormonal contraceptive methods by women with or at high risk of HIV infection, although a clarification recommends that, given uncertainty in the current literature, women at high risk of HIV who choose progestogen-only injectable contraceptives should be informed that it may or may not increase their risk of HIV acquisition and should also be informed about and have access to HIV preventive measures, including male or female condoms.Current HIV/AIDS Reports 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11904-014-0236-6